quantum physics. Here, you find an introduction

to the conventions and principles necessary to solve

quantum physics problems. This part is where you

see one of quantum physics’s most powerful topics:

solving the energy levels and wave functions for parti -

cles trapped in various bound states. You also see

particles in harmonic oscillation. Quantum physicists

are experts at handling those kinds of situations.

Making Everything Easier!™QuWanotrukmbPohoyskics Review your knowledge and understanding of quantum physics Break down equations step by step Solve numerous types of quantum physics problems Prepare for quizzes and exams Point out the tricks instructors use to make problem-solving easierSteven Holzner, PhDAuthor, Quantum Physics For Dummies

Get More and Do More at Dummies.com® Start with FREE Cheat Sheets Cheat Sheets include • Checklists • Charts • Common Instructions • And Other Good Stuff! To access the Cheat Sheet created speciﬁcally for this book, go to www.dummies.com/cheatsheet/quantumphysicswbGet Smart at Dummies.comDummies.com makes your life easier with 1,000sof answers on everything from removing wallpaperto using the latest version of Windows.Check out our • Videos • Illustrated Articles • Step-by-Step InstructionsPlus, each month you can win valuable prizes by entering ourDummies.com sweepstakes. *Want a weekly dose of Dummies? Sign up for Newsletters on • Digital Photography • Microsoft Windows & Ofﬁce • Personal Finance & Investing • Health & Wellness • Computing, iPods & Cell Phones • eBay • Internet • Food, Home & GardenFind out “HOW” at Dummies.com*Sweepstakes not currently available in all countries; visit Dummies.com for ofﬁcial rules.

QuWanoturkmbPohoyskics FORDUMmIES‰ by Steven Holzner, PhD Author of Quantum Physics For Dummies

Quantum Physics Workbook For Dummies®Published byWiley Publishing, Inc.111 River St.Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774www.wiley.comCopyright © 2010 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IndianaPublished by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IndianaPublished simultaneously in CanadaNo part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form orby any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permit-ted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior writtenpermission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to theCopyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600.Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley& Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions.Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo, For Dummies, the Dummies Man logo, A Reference for theRest of Us!, The Dummies Way, Dummies Daily, The Fun and Easy Way, Dummies.com, Making EverythingEasier, and related trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission.All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associatedwith any product or vendor mentioned in this book. LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE PUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITH- OUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS. THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY SITUATION. THIS WORK IS SOLD WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOT ENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE IS REQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL PERSON SHOULD BE SOUGHT. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR THE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZA- TION OR WEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A CITATION AND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FURTHER INFORMATION DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAY MAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVE CHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT IS READ.For general information on our other products and services, please contact our Customer CareDepartment within the U.S. at 877-762-2974, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3993, or fax 317-572-4002.For technical support, please visit www.wiley.com/techsupport.Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print maynot be available in electronic books.Library of Congress Control Number: 2009939359ISBN: 978-0-470-52589-0Manufactured in the United States of America10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

About the Author Steven Holzner is the award-winning writer of many books, including Physics For Dummies, Differential Equations For Dummies, Quantum Physics For Dummies, and many others. He graduated from MIT and got his PhD at Cornell University. He’s been in the faculty of both MIT and Cornell.Dedication To Nancy, of course.Author’s Acknowledgments Thanks to everyone at Wiley who helped make this book possible. A big hearty thanks to Tracy Boggier, Acquisitions Editor; Chad Sievers, Project Editor; Danielle Voirol, Senior Copy Editor; Kristie Rees, Project Coordinator; Dan Funch Wohns, Technical Editor; and anyone else I may have failed to mention.

Publisher’s AcknowledgmentsWe’re proud of this book; please send us your comments at http://dummies.custhelp.com. For othercomments, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 877-762-2974, outside the U.S.at 317-572-3993, or fax 317-572-4002.Some of the people who helped bring this book to market include the following:Acquisitions, Editorial, and Media Development Composition Services Project Editor: Chad R. Sievers Project Coordinator: Kristie Rees Acquisitions Editor: Tracy Boggier Layout and Graphics: Carrie A. Cesavice, Mark Pinto, Senior Copy Editor: Danielle Voirol Assistant Editor: Erin Calligan Mooney Melissa K. Smith Editorial Program Coordinator: Joe Niesen Proofreaders: Laura Albert, Melissa D. Buddendeck Technical Editors: Dan Funch Wohns, Gang Xu Indexer: BIM Indexing & Proofreading Services Editorial Manager: Michelle Hacker Editorial Assistant: Jennette ElNaggar Cover Photos: © Kevin Fleming/CORBIS Cartoons: Rich Tennant (www.the5thwave.com)Publishing and Editorial for Consumer Dummies Diane Graves Steele, Vice President and Publisher, Consumer Dummies Kristin Ferguson-Wagstaffe, Product Development Director, Consumer Dummies Ensley Eikenburg, Associate Publisher, Travel Kelly Regan, Editorial Director, TravelPublishing for Technology Dummies Andy Cummings, Vice President and Publisher, Dummies Technology/General UserComposition Services Debbie Stailey, Director of Composition Services

Contents at a GlanceIntroduction............................................................................. 1Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics............................ 5Chapter 1: The Basics of Quantum Physics: Introducing State Vectors........................................ 7Chapter 2: No Handcuffs Involved: Bound States in Energy Wells............................................... 37Chapter 3: Over and Over with Harmonic Oscillators.................................................................... 69Part II: Round and Round with Angular Momentum and Spin..... 95Chapter 4: Handling Angular Momentum in Quantum Physics..................................................... 97Chapter 5: Spin Makes the Particle Go Round............................................................................... 121Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions....................... 131Chapter 6: Solving Problems in Three Dimensions: Cartesian Coordinates............................. 133Chapter 7: Going Circular in Three Dimensions: Spherical Coordinates................................... 161Chapter 8: Getting to Know Hydrogen Atoms............................................................................... 183Chapter 9: Corralling Many Particles Together............................................................................. 207Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics..... 227Chapter 10: Pushing with Perturbation Theory............................................................................ 229Chapter 11: One Hits the Other: Scattering Theory..................................................................... 245Part V: The Part of Tens........................................................ 267Chapter 12: Ten Tips to Make Solving Quantum Physics Problems Easier............................... 269Chapter 13: Ten Famous Solved Quantum Physics Problems..................................................... 275Chapter 14: Ten Ways to Avoid Common Errors When Solving Problems............................... 279Index................................................................................... 283

Table of ContentsIntroduction.............................................................................. 1 About This Book.................................................................................................................. 1 Conventions Used in This Book........................................................................................ 1 Foolish Assumptions.......................................................................................................... 2 How This Book Is Organized.............................................................................................. 2 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics....................................................... 2 Part II: Round and Round with Angular Momentum and Spin............................. 2 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions.................................................... 2 Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics................................ 3 Part V: The Part of Tens........................................................................................... 3 Icons Used in This Book..................................................................................................... 3 Where to Go from Here...................................................................................................... 3Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics............................. 5 Chapter 1: The Basics of Quantum Physics: Introducing State Vectors . . . . . . . . 7 Describing the States of a System..................................................................................... 7 Becoming a Notation Meister with Bras and Kets........................................................ 12 Getting into the Big Leagues with Operators................................................................ 14 Introducing operators and getting into a healthy, orthonormal relationship................................................................. 14 Grasping Hermitian operators and adjoints........................................................ 18 Getting Physical Measurements with Expectation Values........................................... 18 Commutators: Checking How Different Operators Really Are.................................... 21 Simplifying Matters by Finding Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues................................... 23 Answers to Problems on State Vectors.......................................................................... 27 Chapter 2: No Handcuffs Involved: Bound States in Energy Wells . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Starting with the Wave Function..................................................................................... 37 Determining Allowed Energy Levels............................................................................... 40 Putting the Finishing Touches on the Wave Function by Normalizing It................... 42 Translating to a Symmetric Square Well........................................................................ 44 Banging into the Wall: Step Barriers When the Particle Has Plenty of Energy......... 45 Hitting the Wall: Step Barriers When the Particle Has Doesn’t Have Enough Energy............................................................................................................... 48 Plowing through a Potential Barrier............................................................................... 50 Answers to Problems on Bound States.......................................................................... 54 Chapter 3: Over and Over with Harmonic Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Total Energy: Getting On with a Hamiltonian................................................................ 70 Up and Down: Using Some Crafty Operators................................................................. 72 Finding the Energy after Using the Raising and Lowering Operators........................ 74

viii Quantum Physics Workbook For Dummies Using the Raising and Lowering Operators Directly on the Eigenvectors................. 76 Finding the Harmonic Oscillator Ground State Wave Function.................................. 77 Finding the Excited States’ Wave Functions.................................................................. 79 Looking at Harmonic Oscillators in Matrix Terms........................................................ 82 Answers to Problems on Harmonic Oscillators............................................................ 85 Part II: Round and Round with Angular Momentum and Spin..... 95 Chapter 4: Handling Angular Momentum in Quantum Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Rotating Around: Getting All Angular............................................................................. 98 Untangling Things with Commutators.......................................................................... 100 Nailing Down the Angular Momentum Eigenvectors.................................................. 102 Obtaining the Angular Momentum Eigenvalues.......................................................... 104 Scoping Out the Raising and Lowering Operators’ Eigenvalues............................... 106 Treating Angular Momentum with Matrices................................................................ 108 Answers to Problems on Angular Momentum............................................................. 112 Chapter 5: Spin Makes the Particle Go Round . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Introducing Spin Eigenstates......................................................................................... 121 Saying Hello to the Spin Operators: Cousins of Angular Momentum....................... 124 Living in the Matrix: Working with Spin in Terms of Matrices.................................. 126 Answers to Problems on Spin Momentum................................................................... 128 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions....................... 131 Chapter 6: Solving Problems in Three Dimensions: Cartesian Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Taking the Schrödinger Equation to Three Dimensions............................................ 133 Flying Free with Free Particles in 3-D........................................................................... 136 Getting Physical by Creating Free Wave Packets........................................................ 138 Getting Stuck in a Box Well Potential........................................................................... 141 Box potentials: Finding those energy levels ..................................................... 144 Back to normal: Normalizing the wave function............................................... 146 Getting in Harmony with 3-D Harmonic Oscillators................................................... 149 Answers to Problems on 3-D Rectangular Coordinates............................................. 151 Chapter 7: Going Circular in Three Dimensions: Spherical Coordinates . . . . . 161 Taking It to Three Dimensions with Spherical Coordinates...................................... 162 Dealing Freely with Free Particles in Spherical Coordinates..................................... 167 Getting the Goods on Spherical Potential Wells......................................................... 170 Bouncing Around with Isotropic Harmonic Oscillators............................................. 172 Answers to Problems on 3-D Spherical Coordinates.................................................. 175 Chapter 8: Getting to Know Hydrogen Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Eyeing How the Schrödinger Equation Appears for Hydrogen................................. 183 Switching to Center-of-Mass Coordinates to Make the Hydrogen Atom Solvable..................................................................................... 186

ixTable of Contents Doing the Splits: Solving the Dual Schrödinger Equation.......................................... 188 Solving the Radial Schrödinger Equation for ψ(r)...................................................... 190 Juicing Up the Hydrogen Energy Levels....................................................................... 195 Doubling Up on Energy Level Degeneracy................................................................... 197 Answers to Problems on Hydrogen Atoms.................................................................. 199 Chapter 9: Corralling Many Particles Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 The 4-1-1 on Many-Particle Systems............................................................................. 207 Zap! Working with Multiple-Electron Systems............................................................. 209 The Old Shell Game: Exchanging Particles.................................................................. 211 Examining Symmetric and Antisymmetric Wave Functions...................................... 213 Jumping into Systems of Many Distinguishable Particles......................................... 215 Trapped in Square Wells: Many Distinguishable Particles........................................ 216 Creating the Wave Functions of Symmetric and Antisymmetric Multi-Particle Systems................................................................................................ 218 Answers to Problems on Multiple-Particle Systems................................................... 220Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics...... 227 Chapter 10: Pushing with Perturbation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Examining Perturbation Theory with Energy Levels and Wave Functions............. 229 Solving the perturbed Schrödinger equation for the first-order correction............................................................................ 231 Solving the perturbed Schrödinger equation for the second-order correction...................................................................... 233 Applying Perturbation Theory to the Real World....................................................... 235 Answers to Problems on Perturbation Theory........................................................... 237 Chapter 11: One Hits the Other: Scattering Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Cross Sections: Experimenting with Scattering.......................................................... 245 A Frame of Mind: Going from the Lab Frame to the Center-of-Mass Frame............ 248 Target Practice: Taking Cross Sections from the Lab Frame to the Center-of-Mass Frame...................................................................................... 250 Getting the Goods on Elastic Scattering....................................................................... 252 The Born Approximation: Getting the Scattering Amplitude of Particles............... 253 Putting the Born Approximation to the Test............................................................... 256 Answers to Problems on Scattering Theory................................................................ 258Part V: The Part of Tens........................................................ 267 Chapter 12: Ten Tips to Make Solving Quantum Physics Problems Easier . . . 269 Normalize Your Wave Functions................................................................................... 269 Use Eigenvalues............................................................................................................... 269 Meet the Boundary Conditions for Wave Functions................................................... 270 Meet the Boundary Conditions for Energy Levels...................................................... 270 Use Lowering Operators to Find the Ground State..................................................... 271 Use Raising Operators to Find the Excited States...................................................... 272

x Quantum Physics Workbook For Dummies Use Tables of Functions................................................................................................. 273 Decouple the Schrödinger Equation............................................................................. 274 Use Two Schrödinger Equations for Hydrogen........................................................... 274 Take the Math One Step at a Time................................................................................ 274 Chapter 13: Ten Famous Solved Quantum Physics Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Finding Free Particles..................................................................................................... 275 Enclosing Particles in a Box........................................................................................... 275 Grasping the Uncertainty Principle.............................................................................. 276 Eyeing the Dual Nature of Light and Matter................................................................ 276 Solving for Quantum Harmonic Oscillators................................................................. 276 Uncovering the Bohr Model of the Atom..................................................................... 276 Tunneling in Quantum Physics..................................................................................... 277 Understanding Scattering Theory................................................................................. 277 Deciphering the Photoelectric Effect............................................................................ 277 Unraveling the Spin of Electrons................................................................................... 277 Chapter 14: Ten Ways to Avoid Common Errors When Solving Problems . . . . 279 Translate between Kets and Wave Functions............................................................. 279 Take the Complex Conjugate of Operators.................................................................. 279 Take the Complex Conjugate of Wave Functions........................................................ 280 Include the Minus Sign in the Schrödinger Equation................................................. 280 Include sin θ in the Laplacian in Spherical Coordinates............................................ 280 Remember that λ << 1 in Perturbation Hamiltonians................................................. 281 Don’t Double Up on Integrals........................................................................................ 281 Use a Minus Sign for Antisymmetric Wave Functions under Particle Exchange.... 281 Remember What a Commutator Is................................................................................ 282 Take the Expectation Value When You Want Physical Measurements................... 282 Index.................................................................................... 283

Introduction When you make the leap from classical physics to the small, quantum world, you enter the realm of probability. Quantum physics is an exciting field with lots of impressive results if you know your way around — and this workbook is designed to make sure you do know your way around. I designed this workbook to be your guided tour through the thicket of quantum physics problem-solving. Quantum physics includes more math than you can shake a stick at, and this workbook helps you become proficient at it. About This Book Quantum physics, the study of the very small world, is actually a very big topic. To cover those topics, quantum physics is broken up into many different areas — harmonic oscillators, angular momentum, scattered particles, and more. I provide a good overview of those topics in this workbook, which maps to a college course. For each topic, you find a short introduction and an example problem; then I set you loose on some practice problems, which you can solve in the white space provided. At the end of the chapter, you find the answers and detailed explanations that tell you how to get those answers. You can page through this book as you like instead of having to read it from beginning to end — just jump in and start on your topic of choice. If you need to know concepts that I’ve introduced elsewhere in the book to solve a problem, just follow the cross-references. Conventions Used in This Book Here are some conventions I follow to make this book easier to follow: ✓ The answers to problems, the action part of numbered steps, and vectors appear in bold. ✓ I write new terms in italics and then define them. Variables also appear in italics. ✓ Web addresses appear in monofont.

12 Quantum Physics Workbook For Dummies Foolish Assumptions Here’s what I assume about you, my dear reader: ✓ You’ve had some exposure to quantum physics, perhaps in a class. You now want just enough explanation to help you solve problems and sharpen your skills. If you want a more in-depth discussion on how all these quantum physics concepts work, you may want to pick up the companion book, Quantum Physics For Dummies (Wiley). You don’t have to be a whiz at quantum physics, just have a glancing familiarity. ✓ You’re willing to invest some time and effort in doing these practice problems. If you’re taking a class in the subject and are using this workbook as a companion to the course to help you put the pieces together, that’s perfect. ✓ You know some calculus. In particular, you should be able to do differentiation and integration and work with differential equations. If you need a refresher, I suggest you check out Differential Equations For Dummies (Wiley). How This Book Is Organized I divide this workbook into five parts. Each part is broken down into chapters discussing a key topic in quantum physics. Here’s an overview of what I cover. Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics This part covers the basics. You get started with state vectors and with the entire power of quantum physics. You also see how to work with free particles, with particles bound in square wells, and with harmonic oscillators here. Part II: Round and Round with Angular Momentum and Spin Quantum physics lets you work with the micro world in terms of the angular momentum of particles as well as the spin of electrons. Many famous experiments — such as the Stern- Gerlach experiment, in which beams of particles split in magnetic fields — are understand- able only in terms of quantum physics. You see how to handle problems that deal with these topics right here. Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions Up to this point, the quantum physics problems you solve all take place in one dimension. But the world is a three-dimensional kind of place. This part rectifies that by taking quan- tum physics to three dimensions, where square wells become cubic wells and so on. You also take a look at the two main coordinate systems used for three-dimensional work: rect- angular and spherical coordinates. You work with the hydrogen atom as well.

13Introduction Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics This part is on perturbation theory and scattering. Perturbation theory is all about giving systems a little shove and seeing what happens — like applying an electric field to particles in harmonic oscillation. Scattering theory has to do with smashing one particle against another and predicting what’s going to happen. You see some good collisions here. Part V: The Part of Tens The Part of Tens is a common element of all For Dummies books. In this part, you see ten tips for problem-solving, a discussion of quantum physics’s ten greatest solved problems, and ten ways to avoid common errors when doing the math. Icons Used in This Book You find a few icons in this book, and here’s what they mean: This icon points out example problems that show the techniques for solving a problem before you dive into the practice problems. This icon gives you extra help (including shortcuts and strategies) when solving a problem. This icon marks something to remember, such as a law of physics or a particularly juicy equation. Where to Go from Here If you’re ready, you can do the following: ✓ Jump right into the material in Chapter 1. You don’t have to start there, though; you can jump in anywhere you like. I wrote this book to allow you to take a stab at any chapter that piques your interest. However, if you need a touchup on the foundations of quantum physics, Chapter 1 is where all the action starts. ✓ Head to the table of contents or index. Search for a topic that interests you and start practicing problems. (Note: I do suggest that you don’t choose the answer key as your first “topic of interest” — looking up the solutions before attempting the problems kind of defeats the purpose of a workbook! I promise you’re not being graded here, so just relax and try to understand the processes.)

14 Quantum Physics Workbook For Dummies ✓ Check out Quantum Physics For Dummies. My companion book provides a more comprehensive discussion. With both books by your side, you can further strengthen your knowledge of quantum physics. ✓ Go on vacation. After reading about quantum physics, you may be ready for a relaxing trip to a beach where you can sip fruity cocktails, be waited on hand and foot, and read some light fiction on parallel universes. Or maybe you can visit Fermilab (the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory), west of Chicago, to tour the magnet factory and just hang out with their herd of bison for a while.

Part IGetting Startedwith Quantum Physics

In this part . . .his part gets you started in solving problems inTquantum physics. Here, you find an introductionto the conventions and principles necessary to solvequantum physics problems. This part is where yousee one of quantum physics’s most powerful topics:solving the energy levels and wave functions for parti-cles trapped in various bound states. You also seeparticles in harmonic oscillation. Quantum physicistsare experts at handling those kinds of situations.

Chapter 1 The Basics of Quantum Physics: Introducing State VectorsIn This Chapter▶ Creating state vectors▶ Using quantum physics operators▶ Finding expectation values for operators▶ Simplifying operations with eigenvalues and eigenvectors If you want to hang out with the cool quantum physics crowd, you have to speak the lingo. And in this field, that’s the language of mathematics. Quantum physics often involves representing probabilities in matrices, but when the matrix math becomes unwieldy, you can translate those matrices into the bra and ket notation and perform a whole slew of operations. This chapter gets you started with the basic ideas behind quantum physics, such as the state vector, which is what you use to describe a multistate system. I also cover using operators, making predictions, understanding properties such as commutation, and simpli- fying problems by using eigenvectors. Here you can also find several problems to help you become more acquainted with these concepts.Describing the States of a System The beginnings of quantum physics include explaining what a system’s states can be (such as whether a particle’s spin is up or down, or what orbital a hydrogen atom’s electron is in). The word quantum refers to the fact that the states are discrete — that is, no state is a mix of any other states. A quantum number or a set of quantum numbers specifies a particular state. If you want to break quantum physics down to its most basic form, you can say that it’s all about working with multistate systems. Don’t let the terminology scare you (which can be a constant struggle in quantum physics). A multistate system is just a system that can exist in multiple states; in other words, it has different energy levels. For example, a pair of dice is a multistate system. When you roll a pair of dice, you can get a sum of 2, 3, 5, all the way up to 12. Each one of those values rep- resents a different state of the pair of dice.

8 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics Quantum physics likes to spell everything out, so it approaches the two dice by asking how many ways they could be in the various states. For example, you have only one way to roll a 2 with two dice, but you have six ways to roll a total of 7. So if the relative probability of roll- ing a 2 is one, the relative probability of rolling a 7 is six.With a little thought, you can add up all the ways to get a 2, a 3, and so on like this:Sum of the Dice Relative Probability of Getting That Sum2 13 24 35 46 57 68 59 410 311 212 1 In this case, you can say that the total of the two dice is the quantum number and that each quantum number represents a different state. Each system can be represented by a state vector — a one-dimensional matrix — that indicates the relative probability amplitude of being in each state. Here’s how to set one up: 1. Write down the relative probability of each state and put it in vector form. You now have a one-column matrix listing the probabilities (though you can instead use a one-row matrix). 2. Take the square root of each number to get the probability amplitude. State vectors record not the actual probabilities but rather the probability amplitude, which is the square root of the probability. That’s because when you find probabilities using quantum physics, you multiply two state vectors together (sometimes with an operator — a mathematical construct that returns a value when you apply it to a state vector). 3. Normalize the state vector. Because the total probability that the system is in one of the allowed states is 1, the square of a state vector has to add up to 1. To square a state vector, you multiply every element by itself and then add all the squared terms (it’s just like matrix multipli- cation). However, at this point, squaring each term in the state vector and adding them all usually doesn’t give you 1, so you have to normalize the state vector by dividing each term by the square root of the sum of the squares. 4. Set the vector equal to . Because you may be dealing with a system that has thousands of states, you u sually abbreviate the state vector as a Greek letter, using notation like this: (or if you used a row vector). You see why this notation is useful in the next section. Check out the following example problem and practice problems, which can help clarify any other questions you may have.

9Chapter 1: The Basics of Quantum Physics: Introducing State VectorsQ . What’s the state vector for the various the total of the two dice is 3, and so on. That looks like this: possible states of a pair of dice?A . Convert this vector to probability ampli- tudes by taking the square root of each entry like this: Start by creating a vector that holds the relative probability of each state — that is, the first value holds the relative prob- ability (the number of states) that the total of the two dice is 2, the next item down holds the relative probability that

10 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics When you square the state vector, the Now use the Greek letter notation to repre- square has to add up to 1; that is, the dice sent the state vector. So that’s it; your must show a 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12. state vector is However, squaring each term in this state vector and adding them all up gives you 36, not 1, so you have to normalize the state vector by dividing each term by the square root of 36, or 6, to make sure that you get 1 when you square the state vector. That means the state vector looks like this:

11Chapter 1: The Basics of Quantum Physics: Introducing State Vectors1 . Assume you have two four-sided dice (in 2 . Put the relative probabilities of the various the shape of tetrahedrons — that is, mini states of the four-sided dice into vector pyramids). What are the relative probabili- form. ties of each state of the two dice? (Note: Four-sided dice are odd to work with — Solve It the value of each die is represented by the number on the bottom face, because the dice can’t come to rest on the top of a pyramid!) Solve It 3. Convert the vector of relative probabilities 4. Convert the relative probability amplitude in question 2 to probability amplitudes. vector you found for the four-sided dice in question 3 to a normalized state vector. Solve It Solve It

12 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum PhysicsBecoming a Notation Meister with Bras and Kets Instead of writing out an entire vector each time, quantum physics usually uses a notation developed by physicist Paul Dirac — the Dirac or bra-ket notation. The two terms spell bra- ket, as in bracket, because when an operator appears between them, they bracket, or sand- wich, that operator. Here’s how write the two forms of state vectors: ✓ Bras: ✓ Kets: When you multiply the same state vector expressed as a bra and a ket together — the prod- uct is represented as — you get 1. In other words, . You get 1 because the sum of all the probabilities of being in the allowed states must equal 1. If you have a bra, the corresponding ket is the Hermitian conjugate (which you get by taking the transpose and changing the sign of any imaginary values) of that bra — equals (where the † means the Hermitian conjugate). What does that mean in vector terms? Check out the following example. Q. What’s the bra for the state vector of a Start with the ket: pair of dice? Verify that . A .

13Chapter 1: The Basics of Quantum Physics: Introducing State Vectors Now find the complex conjugate of the ket. To do so in matrix terms, you take the transpose of the ket and then take the complex conjugate of each term (which does nothing in this case because all terms are real numbers). Finding the transpose just involves writing the columns of the ket as the rows of the bra, which gives you the following for the bra: To verify that , multiply the bra and ket together using matrix multiplication like this: Complete the matrix multiplication to give you

14 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics 5. Find the bra for the state vector of a pair of 6 . Confirm that for the bra and ket for the four-sided dice equals 1. four-sided dice. Solve It Solve ItGetting into the Big Leagues with Operators What are bras and kets useful for? They represent a system in a stateless way — that is, you don’t have to know which state every element in a general ket or bra corresponds to; you don’t have to spell out each vector. Therefore, you can use kets and bras in a general way to work with systems. In other words, you can do a lot of math on kets and bras that would be unwieldy if you had to spell out all the elements of a state vector every time. Operators can assist you. This section takes a closer look at how you can use operators to make your calculations.Introducing operators and getting into a healthy,orthonormal relationshipKets and bras describe the state of a system. But what if you want to measure some quan-tity of the system (such as its momentum) or change the system (such as by raiding ahydrogen atom to an excited state)? That’s where operators come in. You apply an operatorto a bra or ket to extract a value and/or change the bra or ket to a different state. In general,an operator gives you a new bra or ket when you use that operator: .

15Chapter 1: The Basics of Quantum Physics: Introducing State Vectors Some of the most important operators you need to know include the following: ✓ Hamiltonian operator: Designated as H, this operator is the most important in quan- tum physics. When applied to a bra or ket, it gives you the energy of the state that the bra or ket represents (as a constant) multiplied by that bra or ket again: E is the energy of the particle represented by the ket . ✓ Unity or identity operator: Designated as I, this operator leaves kets unchanged: ✓ Gradient operator: Designated as ∇, this operator takes the derivative. It works like this: ✓ Linear momentum operator: Designated as P, this operator finds the momentum of a state. It looks like this: ✓ Laplacian operator: Designated as Δ, or , this operator is much like a second-order gradient, which means it takes the second derivative. It looks like this: In general, multiplying operators together is not the same independent of order, so for the operators A and B, AB ≠ BA You can find the complex conjugate of an operator A, denoted , like this: When working with kets and bras, keep the following in mind: ✓ Two kets, and , are said to be orthogonal if ✓ Two kets are said to be orthonormal if all three of the following apply: • • •

16 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics Q. Find an orthonormal ket to the bra Do the matrix multiplication to get . A . So therefore, A = –D (and you can leave B and C at 0; their value is arbitrary because You know that to be orthonormal, the you multiply them by the zeroes in the following relations must be true: bra, giving you a product of 0). • • You’re not free to choose just any values for A and D because must equal 1. So you need to construct a ket made up of elements A, B, C, D such that So you can choose , giving you the following ket:

17Chapter 1: The Basics of Quantum Physics: Introducing State Vectors7 . Find an orthonormal ket to the bra 8 . Find the identity operator for bras and kets with six elements. Solve It Solve It

18 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics Grasping Hermitian operators and adjoints Operators that are equal to their Hermitian adjoints are called Hermitian operators. In other words, an operator is Hermitian if Here’s how you find the Hermitian adjoint of an operator, A: 1. Find the transpose by interchanging the rows and columns, AT. 2. Take the complex conjugate. In addition, finding the inverse is often useful because applying the inverse of an operator undoes the work the operator did: A–1A = AA–1 = I. For instance, when you have equations like Ax = y, solving for x is easy if you can find the inverse of A: x = A–1y. But finding the inverse of a large matrix usually isn’t easy, so quantum physics calculations are sometimes limited to working with unitary operators, U, where the operator’s inverse is equal to its Hermitian adjoint:Getting Physical Measurementswith Expectation Values Everything in quantum physics is done in terms of probabilities, so making predictions becomes very important. The biggest such prediction is the expectation value. The expecta- tion value of an operator is the average value the operator will give you when you apply it to a particular system many times. The expectation value is a weighted mean of the probable values of an operator. Here’s how you’d find the expectation value of an operator A:Because you can express as a row vector and as a column vector, you can expressthe operator A as a square matrix. Finding the expectation value is so common that you often find abbreviated as .The expression is actually a linear operator. To see that, apply to a ket, :which is .The expression is always a complex number (which could be purely real), so thisbreaks down to , where c is a complex number, so is indeed a linear operator.

19Chapter 1: The Basics of Quantum Physics: Introducing State Vectors Q. What is the expectation value of rolling two dice? A. Seven. For two dice, the expectation value is a sum of terms, and each term is a value that the dice can display multiplied by the probability that that value will appear. The bra and ket handle the probabilities, so the operator you create for this problem, which I call the A operator for this example, needs to store the dice values (2 through 12) for each probabil- ity. Therefore, the operator A looks like this: To find the expectation value of A, you need to calculate . Spelling that out in terms of components gives you the following:

20 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics Doing the matrix multiplication gives you So the expectation value of a roll of the dice is 7. 9. Find the expectation value of two 1 0. Find the expectation value of the identity four-sided dice. operator for a pair of normal, six-sided dice (see the earlier section “Introducing opera- Solve It tors and getting into a healthy, orthonor- mal relationship” for more on the identity operator). Solve It

21Chapter 1: The Basics of Quantum Physics: Introducing State VectorsCommutators: Checking How DifferentOperators Really Are In quantum physics, the measure of the difference between applying operator A and then B, versus B and then A, is called the operators’ commutator. If two operators have a commuta- tor that’s 0, they commute, and the order in which you apply them doesn’t make any differ- ence. In other words, operators that commute don’t interfere with each other, and that’s useful to know when you’re working with multiple operators. You can independently use commuting operators, whereas you can’t independently use noncommuting ones. Here’s how you define the commutator of operators A and B: [A, B] = AB – BA Two operators commute with each other if their commutator is equal to 0: [A, B] = 0 The Hermitian adjoint of a commutator works this way:Check out the following example, which illustrates the concept of commuting.Q . Show that any operator commutes with A. [A, A] = 0. The definition of a commuta- itself. tor is [A, B] = AB – BA. And if both opera- tors are A, you get [A, A] = AA – AA But AA – AA = 0, so you get [A, A] = AA – AA = 0

22 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics1 1. What is [A, B] in terms of [B, A]? 12. What is the Hermitian adjoint of a Solve It commutator if A and B are Hermitian operators? Solve It

23Chapter 1: The Basics of Quantum Physics: Introducing State VectorsSimplifying Matters by Finding Eigenvectorsand EigenvaluesWhen you apply an operator to a ket, you generally get a new ket. For instance, .However, sometimes you can make matters a little simpler by casting your problem interms of eigenvectors and eigenvalues (eigen is German for “innate” or “natural”). Instead ofgiving you an entirely new ket, applying an operator to its eigenvector (a ket) merely givesyou the same eigenvector back again, multiplied by its eigenvalue (a constant). In otherwords, is an eigenvector of the operator A if the number a is a complex constant and.So applying A to one of its eigenvectors, , gives you back, multiplied by that eigen-vector’s eigenvalue, a. An eigenvalue can be complex, but note that if the operators areHermitian, the values of a are real and their eigenvectors are orthogonal (see the earliersection “Grasping Hermitian operators and adjoints” for more on Hermitian operators). To find an operator’s eigenvalues, you want to find a, such thatYou can rewrite the equation this way, where I is the identity matrix (that is, it contains all 0sexcept for the 1s running along the diagonal from upper left to lower right):For this equation to have a solution, the matrix determinant of (A – aI) must equal 0:det(A – aI) = 0Solving this relation gives you an equation for a — and the roots of the equation are the toeigenvalues. You then plug the eigenvalues, one by one, into the equationfind the eigenvectors. If two or more of the eigenvalues are the same, that eigenvalue is said to be degenerate.Know that many systems, like free particles, don’t have a number of set discrete energystates; their states are continuous. In such circumstances, you move from a state vectorlike to a continuous wave function, ψ(r). How does ψ(r) relate to ? You have torelate the stateless vector to normal spatial dimensions, which you do with a state vectorwhere the states correspond to possible positions, (see my book Quantum Physics ForDummies [Wiley] for all the details). In that case, .

24 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum PhysicsQ . What are the eigenvectors and eigenval- Here’s the operator you want to find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of: ues of the following operator, which presents the operator for two six-sided dice? A . The eigenvalues are 2, 3, 4, 5, ..., 12, This operator operates in 11-dimensional space, so you need to find 11 eigenvec- and the eigenvectors are tors and 11 corresponding eigenvalues. This operator is already diagonal, so this problem is easy — just take unit vectors in the 11 different directions of the eigenvec- tors. Here’s what the first eigenvector is:

25Chapter 1: The Basics of Quantum Physics: Introducing State Vectors And here’s the second eigenvector: And so on, up to the 11th eigenvector What about the eigenvalues? The eigenval- ues are the values you get when you apply the operator to an eigenvector, and because the eigenvectors are just unit vectors in all 11 dimensions, the eigenvalues are the num- bers on the diagonal of the operator — that is, 2, 3, 4, and so on, up to 12.

26 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics1 3. What are the eigenvalues and eigenvectors 1 4. What are the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of this operator? of this operator? A= A=Solve It Solve It

27Chapter 1: The Basics of Quantum Physics: Introducing State VectorsAnswers to Problems on State Vectors The following are the answers to the practice questions presented earlier in this chapter. I first repeat the problems and give the answers in bold. Then you can see the answers worked out, step by step. a Assume you have two four-sided dice (in the shape of tetrahedons — that is, mini pyramids). What are the relative probabilities of each state of the two dice? Here’s the answer: 1 = Relative probability of getting a 2 2 = Relative probability of getting a 3 3 = Relative probability of getting a 4 4 = Relative probability of getting a 5 3 = Relative probability of getting a 6 2 = Relative probability of getting a 7 1 = Relative probability of getting a 8 Adding up the various totals of the two four-sided dice gives you the number of ways each total can appear, and that’s the relative probability of each state. b Put the relative probabilities of the various states of the four-sided dice into vector form. Just assemble the relative probabilities of each state into vector format. c Convert the vector of relative probabilities in question 2 to probability amplitudes. To find the probability amplitudes, just take the square root of the relative probabilities.

28 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics d Convert the relative probability amplitude vector you found for the four-sided dice in ques- tion 3 to a normalized state vector. To normalize the state vector, divide each term by the square root of the sum of the squares of each term: 12 + (21/2)2 + (31/2)2 + 22 + (31/2)2 + (21/2)2 + 12 = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 +3 + 2 + 1 = 16, and 161/2 = 4, so divide each term by 4. Doing so ensures that the square of the state vector gives you a total value of 1. e Find the bra for the state vector of a pair of four-sided dice. The answer is To find the bra, start with the ket that you already found in problem 4:

29Chapter 1: The Basics of Quantum Physics: Introducing State Vectors Take the transpose of the ket and the complex conjugate of each term (which does nothing, because each term is real) to getf Confirm that for the bra and ket for the four-sided dice equals 1. Here’s the answer: To find , perform this multiplication: To find , perform this multiplication, giving you 1:g Find an orthonormal ket to the bra . You know that to be orthonormal, the following relations must be true: ✓ ✓ So you need to construct a ket made up of elements A and B such that

30 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics Do the matrix multiplication to get So therefore, A = –D. You’re not free to choose just any values for A and D because must equal 1. So you can choose A = and D = to make the math come out right here, giving you the following ket:h Find the identity operator for bras and kets with six elements. You need a matrix I such that In this problem, you’re working with bras and kets with six elements: Therefore, you need a matrix that looks like this:i Find the expectation value of two four-sided dice. The answer is 5. For two four-sided dice, the expectation value is a sum of terms, and each term is a value that the dice can display, multiplied by the probability that that value will appear.

31Chapter 1: The Basics of Quantum Physics: Introducing State Vectors The bra and ket will handle the probabilities, so it’s up to the operator you create for this — call it the A operator — to store the dice values (2 through 8) for each probability, which means that the operator A looks like this: To find the expectation value of A, you need to calculate . Spelling that out in terms of components gives you the following: Doing the matrix multiplication gives you So the expectation value of a roll of the pair of four-sided dice is 5.j Find the expectation value of the identity operator for a pair of normal, six-sided dice. The answer is 1. For two dice, the expectation value is a sum of terms, and each term is a value that the dice can display, multiplied by the probability that that value will appear. The bra and ket will handle the probabilities. The operator A is the identity operator, so it looks like this:

32 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics To find the expectation value of I, you need to calculate . Spelling that out in terms of components gives you the following: 1 1 21 2 31 2 2 51 2 61 2 51 2 2 31 2 21 2 1 6 66 666 6 666 66 21 2 6 31 2 6 2 6 51 2 6 61 2 6 51 2 6 2 6 31 2 6 21 2 6 1 6

33Chapter 1: The Basics of Quantum Physics: Introducing State Vectors Doing the matrix multiplication gives you So the expectation value of the identity operator is 1.k What is [A, B] in terms of [B, A]? The answer is [A, B] = –[B, A]. The definition of a commutator [A, B] is [A, B] = AB – BA. And [B, A] = BA – AB, or [B, A] = –AB + BA. You can write this as [B, A] = –(AB – BA) But AB – BA = [A, B], so [B, A] = –[A, B], or [A, B] = –[B, A]l What is the Hermitian adjoint of a commutator if A and B are Hermitian operators?The answer is . You want to figure out what the following expression is: Expanding gives you And expanding this gives you For Hermitian operators, And BA – AB is just –[A, B], so you get where A and B are Hermitian operators. Note that when you take the Hermitian adjoint of an expression and get the same thing back with a negative sign in front of it, the expression is called anti-Hermitian, so the commutator of two Hermitian operators is anti-Hermitian.m What are the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of this operator? A= The eigenvalues of A are a1 = 1 and a2 = 3. The eigenvectors are and

34 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics First find A – aI: Now find the determinant: det(A – aI) = (2 – a)(2 – a) – 1 = a2 – 4a + 3 Factor this into det(A – aI) = a2 – 4a + 3 = (a – 1)(a – 3) So the eigenvalues of A are a1 = 1 and a2 = 3. To find the eigenvector corresponding to a1, substitute a1 into A – aI: Because (A – aI)x = 0, you have Because every row of this matrix equation must be true, you know that txo1 a=1–ixs2. And that means that up to an arbitrary constant, the eigenvector corresponding Drop the arbitrary constant, and just write this as How about the eigenvector corresponding to a2? Plugging a2 in gives you Then you have So ixs1 = 0, and that means that up to an arbitrary constant, the eigenvector corresponding to a2 Drop the arbitrary constant and just write this as

35Chapter 1: The Basics of Quantum Physics: Introducing State Vectorsn What are the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of this operator? A= The eigenvalues of A are a1 = 2 and a2 = –1. The eigenvectors are and First, find A – aI: Now find the determinant: det(A – aI) = (3 – a)(–2 – a) + 4 = a2 – a – 2 Factor this into det(A – aI) = a2 – a – 2 = (a + 1)(a – 2) So the eigenvalues of A are a1 = 2 and a2 = –1. To find the eigenvector corresponding to a1, substitute a1 into A – aI: Because (A – aI)x = 0, you have Because every row of this matrix equation must be true, you know that txo1 a=1xi2s. And that means that up to an arbitrary constant, the eigenvector corresponding Drop the arbitrary constant and just write this as How about the eigenvector corresponding to a2? Plugging a2 in gives you

36 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics Then you have So a42xi1s= x2, and that means that up to an arbitrary constant, the eigenvector corresponding to Drop the arbitrary constant and just write this as

Chapter 2 No Handcuffs Involved: Bound States in Energy WellsIn This Chapter▶ Getting wave functions in potential wells▶ Solving infinite square wells▶ Determining energy levels▶ Solving problems where particles impact potential barriers An energy well is formed by a potential (such as an electric potential) that restricts the motion of a particle (which would be a charged particle if you’re dealing with an energy well formed by an electric potential). Particles trapped in energy wells are bound there, and they move back and forth. The motion of such particles is well defined by quantum physics, as are the energy levels. The real value of quantum physics becomes apparent when you work on the microscopic scale, and nowhere is that more true than with energy wells. If you have a macroscopic system, such as a tennis ball stuck in an energy well, the fact that the tennis ball has a spectrum of allowed energy levels isn’t apparent. The situation becomes much clearer when you’re deal- ing with, say, an electron in an energy well on the order of an atom in size. On that scale, it immediately becomes clear that the electron is allowed only certain wave functions to describe its motion and certain energy levels. This chapter is all about solving problems involving energy wells. You can tackle these kinds of problems by finding the allowed wave functions and energy levels.Starting with the Wave Function Wave functions are primary to quantum physics. They represent the probability amplitude that a particle will be in a certain state, and they’re the solution to the Schrödinger equation. When you have a particle’s wave function, you have its energy, expected location, and more. Square wells are just square potentials (for example, electrical potentials), created to resem- ble Figure 2-1. They’re called square wells because they can trap particles in them, such that the particles bounce off the walls.

38 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics V Figure 2-1: m x A potential a well. In this figure, the energy well’s walls are infinite, so you can describe the energy well like this: How does a particle trapped in this energy well behave? Quantum physics handles problems like this with the Schrödinger equation, which adds the kinetic and potential energies to give you the total energy in terms of the particle’s wave function, like this, where m is the mass of the particle: Writing out the Laplacian gives you the following: What good is the wave function? The wave function is a particle’s probability amplitude (the square root of the probability), and you have to square it to get to an actual probability. You can use the probability amplitude to get expectation values, such as the expected value of the x position of the particle, which is how you tie wave functions to real, observable quantities: The following example looks at the kinds of solutions you get for the Schrödinger equation for particles trapped in square wells.

39Chapter 2: No Handcuffs Involved: Bound States in Energy WellsQ . What is the wave function for a particle 2. The particle is trapped in the well, so substitute for V(x) for the region trapped in this one-dimensional well? inside the well, where 0 ≤ x ≤ a. A. . Here’s how 3. Find the allowed wave functions by to solve this problem: solving the second-order differential equation. 1. Write the Schrödinger equation in one dimension. The solutions are of the form The particle is trapped in a one- dimensional well, so you’re interested in only the x dimension. You don’t where A, B, and k are yet to be need the y and z terms, so the Schrödinger equation looks like this: determined. 1. Determine k in terms of the particle’s 2. Show that ψ(x) = A sin(kx) + B cos(kx) is aenergy, E, for the solutionswψ1h(ixc)h=wAerseinj(uksxt)foanudndψi2n(xt)h=e B cos(kx), solution of the Schrödinger equation for aexample. preceding particle trapped in a square well. Solve ItSolve It

40 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics Determining Allowed Energy Levels Figuring out the allowed energy levels (E) is another function you need to know how to do. Because all the systems in this book are quantized, they can only have certain energy levels, called their allowed energy levels. Figuring out those energy levels is an important part of under- standing what makes those systems tick. The good news is that making this determination isn’t too difficult. To do so, you simply match the boundary conditions of the wave function. A particle bound in this energy well is as follows: And the wave function looks like this: ψ(x) = A sin(kx) + B cos(kx) where and you still have to determine the values of A and B. The following example breaks down how you figure out allowed energy levels. Q. What are the allowed energy levels for a means that the following is true, where n = 1, 2, 3, and so forth: particle trapped in this one-dimensional ka = nπ n = 1, 2, 3, ... well? This equation becomes A . Finally, rewrite the equation and solve for E. Because , you get Because the well is infinite at x = 0 and x = a, this must be true for the wave equation ψ So solve for E, which gives you the • ψ(0) = 0 following: • ψ(a) = 0 The fact that ψ(0) = 0 tells you that B must be 0, because cos(0) = 1. And the fact that ψ(a) = 0 tells you that Remember: These are quantized energy states, corresponding to the quantum ψ . Because the sine is 0 numbers 1, 2, 3, and so on. Quantized when its argument is a multiple of π, this energy states are the allowed energy states of a system.

41Chapter 2: No Handcuffs Involved: Bound States in Energy Wells3 . What is the lowest energy level of a particle 4 . Assume you have an electron, mass of mass m trapped in this square well? 9.11 × 10–31 kg, confined to an infinite one- dimensional square well of width of the order of Bohr radius (the average radius Solve It of an electron’s orbit in a hydrogen atom, about 5 × 10–11 meters). What is the energy of this electron? Solve It

42 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics Putting the Finishing Touches on the Wave Function by Normalizing It You know that ψ(x) = A sin(kx), but how do you solve for A? You can solve for A because the wave function has to be normalized over all space; that is, the square of the wave func- tion, which is the probability that the particle will be in a certain location, has to equal 1 when integrated over all space. For a square well like thisyou have the following wave equation:So you want to solve for A. The following example shows you how to do so, and the practiceproblems help you get more familiar with the concept.Q . Determine the normalization condition 2. Set the integral’s boundaries. The square well looks like this: that the wave function solution to this square well must satisfy: A . . Here’s how to solve the which means that ψ(x) = 0 outside the region 0 < x < a, so the normalization problem: condition becomes this: 1. Set up the square of the wave func- tion for the interval from –∞ to ∞ and set it equal to 1. Wave functions have to be normalized — that is, the probability of finding the particle between x and dx, |ψ(x)|2 dx, must add up to 1 when you integrate over all space:

43Chapter 2: No Handcuffs Involved: Bound States in Energy Wells5 . Use the following normalization condition 6. Using the form of A you solved for in the to solve for A if : preceding problem, find the complete form of ψ(x). Solve ItSolve It

44 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics Translating to a Symmetric Square Well The region inside a square well doesn’t have to go from 0 to a, as it does in the preceding sections. You can shift the well to the left so that it’s symmetric around the origin instead. In order to shift, you move the square well so that it extends from –a⁄2 to a⁄2. The new infinite square well looks like this: Often, you see problems with square wells that are symmetric around the origin like this, so it pays to know how to shift between square well potentials centered around the origin and those that start at the origin. Q. Given that the following square well creates wave functions like this: what are the wave functions when you shift the square well to the following coordinates? A. To shift the sine function along the x-axis, you subtract the amount of the shift from x. You want to move the wave function units, so you can translate from this old square well to the new one by adding to x — that is, . So if the original wave function is then you can write the wave function for the new square well like this:

45Chapter 2: No Handcuffs Involved: Bound States in Energy Wells7 . Simplify the new ψ(x) in terms of sines and 8 . What are the first four wave functions for a cosines, without the (x + ) term: particle in this symmetric square well? Solve It Solve ItBanging into the Wall: Step Barriers When theParticle Has Plenty of Energy You often see problems involving potential steps. Potential steps are just like what they sound like — the potential changes from one level to another. Check out Figure 2-2 for an example of a potential step. V E V0 Figure 2-2: x A potential 0 step.

46 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics The potential for Figure 2-2 looks like this:A particle traveling to the right that has energy, E, that’s greater than (VT0hceanneexatssileycteinotnerthe region x > 0 because it has enough energy to get past the barrier.addresses the other case, where E < V0.) However, as you find out in the example problem,not all particles get through.In the case where E > V0, here’s what the Schrödinger equation looks like for the region x < 0:where . And for the region x > 0, this is what the Schrödinger equation looks like:where .It turns out that you can calculate R, the fraction of the wave function that’s reflected, andT, the fraction of the wave function that’s transmitted. Check out the following example forsolving the Schrödinger equation with this case, and then try the practice problems. Q. Solve the Schrödinger equation for the 2. Solve for ψ. To do so, treat these equations as regions x < 0 and x > 0. simple second-order differential equa-A . The answer is tions, which gives you these solutions: • • • • where A, B, C, and D are constants. where and Remember: Note that eikx represents . Here’s plane waves (unfocused wave funtions) traveling in the +x direction, and e–ikx how you solve it: represents plane waves traveling in the –x direction. This solution means that1. Start with the Schrödinger equation, waves can hit the potential step from which gives you the equations for the the left and be either transmitted or wave functions. reflected. The wave can be reflected only if it’s going to the right, not to the left, so D must equal 0. The D term drops out, where and making the wave equations • where . •

47Chapter 2: No Handcuffs Involved: Bound States in Energy Wells9 . Calculate the reflection coefficient, R, and 1 0. Solve for the reflection coefficient R and transmission coefficient, T, for the wave the transmission coefficient T for this wave where function: • • • • in terms of A, B, and C, where R is the prob- ability that the particle will be reflected in terms of k1 and k2, where and T is the probability the wave will be transmitted through the potential step. and . Solve It Solve It

48 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum PhysicsHitting the Wall: Step Barriers When theParticle Doesn’t Have Enough EnergyWhen dealing with potential steps, you may encounter another case: when E, the energy ofthe particle, is less tthhaensVte0p, t—he potential of the step. That doesn’t make a difference in theregion x < 0, before the solution to the Schrödinger equation stays the same,regardless of how much energy the particle has. Here’s what the solution looks like for x < 0(see the preceding section for info on how to find this answer):But in this case, the particle doesn’t have enough energy to make it into the region x > 0,according to classical physics. However, it can actually get there according to quantumphysics. Check out the following example to figure out how to solve for the region x > 0.Then try the practice problems. Q. Solve the Schrödinger equation for a 2. Solve the differential equation. By doing so, you find two linearly inde- potential step where the particle has energy, E, that’s less than the potential of pendent solutions: the step, V0: • • And the general solution to theA . Here are the answers: Schrödinger equation is • • • Remember: Wave functions have to be finite everywhere, and the second term where and is clearly not finite as x approaches infinity, so D must equal 0, which . Follow makes the solution for x > 0 equal to these steps to solve the problem: So the wave functions for the two1. Start with the Schrödinger equation for x > 0. regions are as follows: • • where 0, which would .E– Vk0iims agi- You can also cast this wave function in less than make terms of the incident, reflected, and nary. That’s physically impossible, so ttψrhrae(nxfs)omallnoitdwteψidntg(wx: )a.vWe hfuenncytioounsd,oψ, iy(xo)u, get change the sign in the Schrödinger equation from plus to minus: • • • and use tihf Eis<foVr0k):2 (note that this is positive

49Chapter 2: No Handcuffs Involved: Bound States in Energy Wells1 1. Calculate the reflection coefficient, R, and 12. Calculate the probability density, transmission coefficient, T, for the wave , for the particle from the function of a particle encountering a poten- preceding problem to be in the region x > 0. tial step, V0 Probability density, when integrated over all space, gives you a probability of 1 that the particle will be found somewhere in all space. The probability that the particle will where the energy of the particle E < V0 and be found in the region dx is . the wave function is • Solve It • • where and .Solve It

50 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics Plowing through a Potential Barrier Sometimes the particles have to try to plow through a potential that represents a b arrier. A barrier is like a step, but whereas the barrier also returns to its original value, a step doesn’t. A potential barrier looks like this: You can see what this potential barrier looks like in Figure 2-3. V E V0 Figure 2-3: ax A potential 0 barrier. To solve the Schrödinger equation for a potential barrier, you have to consider two cases based on whether the particle has more or less energy than the potential barrier. That is, if E is the energy of the incident particle, the two cases to consider are ✓ E > V0 ✓ E < V0

51Chapter 2: No Handcuffs Involved: Bound States in Energy WellsQ . Find the wave function (up to arbitrary 2. Solve these differential equations for ψ1(x), ψ2(x), and ψ3(x). normalization coefficients) for a particle encountering the following potential Doing so gives you the following: barrier where the energy of the particle • E > V0: • A. Here are the answers: • • 3. Set F to 0. • Because there’s no leftward-traveling • wave in the x > a region, F = 0, so where and .Here’s how to find the solution:1. Write the Schrödinger equation. Here’s what the equation looks like for x < 0: where . For the region 0 ≤ x ≤ a, this is what the Schrödinger equation looks like: where . For the region x > a, this is what the Schrödinger equation looks like: where .

52 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics1 3. Calculate the transmission coefficient, T, 14. Calculate the reflection coefficient, R, for for the wave function where E > V0 and the wave function where E > V0 and and where and where • • • • • • where and . where and . Solve It Solve It

53Chapter 2: No Handcuffs Involved: Bound States in Energy Wells1 5. Find the wave function (up to arbitrary 16. Calculate the reflection and transmissionnormalization coefficients) for a particleencountering the following potential bar- coefficients for a particle hitting a potentialrier where the energy of the particle is Eb a<rrVie0 ranodf V0 where the particle’s energytEh<anV0th(tehpaot tiesn, tthiael particle has less energy barrier this time): Solve It and where • • and . • where Solve It

54 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum PhysicsAnswers to Problems on Bound States The following are the answers to the practice questions presented earlier in this chapter. I repeat the questions, give the answers in bold, and show you how to work out the answers, step by step.a Dψe2(txe)rm= iBnecoksi(nkxte)rtmhastoyfotuhejupsatrftoiuclned’sinentehregpy,reEc, efodrintgheexsaomluptiloen. Hs ψer1e(x’s) =A sin(kx) and the answer: To solve, start with the Schrödinger equation for a particle in the square well shown in Figure 2-1. This is a one-dimensional well, so you don’t need the y and z coordinates: Because V(x) = 0 inside the well, the second term drops out: Write this equation in terms of k as where . Now you have a second-order differential equation. When you solve the equation, you come up with the following: ✓ ψ1(x) = A sin(kx) ✓ ψ 2(x) = B cos(kx) where A and B are constants that are yet to be determined and Here’s the final wave function: ψ(x) = A sin(kx) + B cos(kx)b Show that ψ(x) = A sin(kx) + B cos(kx) is a solution of the Schrödinger equation for a parti- cle trapped in a square well. The equation ψ(x) = A sin(kx) + B cos(kx) works as a solution. Write the Schrödinger equation for a particle in the square well shown in Figure 2-1: Because V(x) = 0 inside the well, the second term equals zero, so the equation becomes

55Chapter 2: No Handcuffs Involved: Bound States in Energy Wells You can write this as where . Plugging in ψ(x) = A sin(kx) + B cos(kx) gives you the following: Simplifying, this becomes which does equal 0, as the equation requires.c What is the lowest energy level of a particle of mass m trapped in this square well? The answer is The energy levels for a particle trapped in a square well are Although n = 0 is technically a solution to the Schrödinger equation, it yields ψ(0) = 0, so it’s not a physical solution — the physical solutions begin with n = 1. The first physical state corresponds to n = 1, which gives you the following, because 12 = 1: This is the ground state, the lowest allowed energy state that the particle can occupy.d Assume you have an electron, mass 9.11 × 10–31 kg, confined to an infinite one-dimensional square well of width of the order of Bohr radius (the average radius of an electron’s orbit in a hydrogen atom, about 5 × 10–11 meters). What is the energy of this electron? About 16 elec- tron volts. The energy levels for a particle trapped in a square well are The ground energy state is

56 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics Now just plug in the physical constants, which gives you the following: Perform the multiplication to find the energy in joules: That’s about 16 electron volts (eV — the amount of energy one electron gains falling through 1 volt; 1 eV = 1.6 × 10–19 joules). This provides a good estimate for the energy of an electron in the ground state of a hydrogen atom (13.6 eV), so you can say you’re certainly in the right quantum ballpark.e Use the following normalization condition to solve for A if : The answer is . Start with the normalization condition of the wave function , which is Now plug into the normalization condition: Find the value of the integral: Replace the integral with in the normalization equation, which gives you the following: Finally, solve for A:f Using the form of A you solved for in the preceding problem, find the complete form of ψ(x). The wave function ψ(x) has this form:

57Chapter 2: No Handcuffs Involved: Bound States in Energy Wells The solution for problem 5 tells you the value of A: Simply plug A into ψ(x) to get the following:g Simplify the new ψ(x) in terms of sines and cosines, without the term: The answer is Start with this wave function: Using some trigonometry gives you In other words, the result is a mix of sines and cosines.h What are the first four wave functions for a particle in this symmetric square well? Here are the answers: ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓

58 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics For this square well Here’s the wave function (see the preceding problem for details): To find the first four wave functions, plug in 1 through 4 for n. So the first four wave functions are ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Note that the cosines are symmetric around the origin (ψ(x) = ψ(–x)) and the sines are anti symmetric (–ψ(x) = ψ(–x)). i Calculate the reflection coefficient, R, and transmission coefficient, T, for the wave where ✓ ✓ in terms of A, B, and C, where R is the probability that the particle will be reflected and T is the probability the wave will be transmitted through the potential step. Here’s the answer: ✓ ✓

59Chapter 2: No Handcuffs Involved: Bound States in Energy Wells Start with this wave function: ✓ ✓ tIsfheJecrtriiseofntlheaecl tarireoefnlaec)c,otJeeidfifsicctuiherernetin,nticsdideennsittycu(trhreenatmdoeunnsittyo,f probability that flows per second per cross- R, and Jt is the transmitted current density, then And T, the transmission coefficient, is For both the transmitted and the reflection c,otehfeficiniecnidt,eynotucunrereednttodeknnsoiwtyJiis. WthheaftoilsloJwi?inBge,cwauhseere the incident part of the wave is the asterisks denote the complex conjugate: And substituting, this just equals In the same way, you can find Jr and Jt in terms of B and C: ✓ ✓ So substituting for Jr and Ji, here’s what you get for the reflection coefficient: And substituting for Jt and Ji, you find that T, the transmission coefficient, is j Solve for the reflection coefficient R and the transmission coefficient T for this wave function: ✓ ✓ and . in terms of k1 and k2, where

60 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics Here are the answers: ✓ ✓ where and . SToheh obwoudnodayroyuccoanlcduitliaotnesAh, eBr,eaanrdeCthinattψer(mx)saonfdkd1 ψan(xd)/kd2x? You do that with boundary conditions. are continuous across the potential step’s boundary. In other words ψ1(0) = ψ2(0) and You know that ✓ ✓ If you plug in the boundary conditions, here’s what you get: ✓ A + B = C ✓ k1A – k1B = k2C Now solve for B in terms of A. That gives you the following result: Solve for C in terms of A, which gives you You don’t need to solve for A, because it’ll drop out of the ratios for the reflection and trans- mission coefficients, R and T. appears in the denominators, and when you square and in the numerators, the A2 cancels out: ✓ ✓

61Chapter 2: No Handcuffs Involved: Bound States in Energy Wells Therefore, you get the following: ✓ ✓ k Calculate the reflection coefficient, R, and transmission coefficient, T, for the wave function of a particle encountering a potential step, V0 where the energy of the particle E < V0 and the wave function is ✓ ✓ ✓ where and . The answer is R = 1 and T = 0. Here are the equations for R and T, where J is the probability current density of the particle: ✓ ✓ Here’s what Jt looks like: But because is completely real (which means that you can remove the * symbols because they indicate a complex conjugate), you get the following: And doing the subtraction shows you that this, of course, is zero: Jt = 0, so T = 0. And if T = 0, then R = 1. That means that there is complete reflection.

62 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physicsl Calculate the probability density, , for the particle from the preceding problem to be in the region x > 0. Probability density, when integrated over all space, gives you a probability of 1 that the particle will be found somewhere in all space. The probability that the particle will be found in the region dx is . If the particle’s wave function is ✓ ✓ ✓ where and , the probability density for x > 0 is The probability density for x > 0 is Plug in ψt(x) to get Now use the continuity cyoonudtihtieofnosll—owψin1g(0: ) = ψ2(0) and — and solve for C in terms of A, which gives Note that although this value rapidly falls to zero as x gets large, it has a nonzero value near x = 0. This is an example of quantum tunneling, in which particles that wouldn’t classically be allowed in certain regions can get there with quantum physics.m Calculate the transmission coefficient, T, for the wave function where E > V0 and and where ✓ ✓ ✓

where 63Chapter 2: No Handcuffs Involved: Bound States in Energy Wells and . The answer is where and . You know that ✓ ✓ ✓ To determine A, B, C, D, and E, you use the boundary conditions, which work out here to be the following: ✓ ψ1(0) = ψ2(0) ✓ ✓ ψ2(a) = ψ3(a) ✓ From the boundary conditions, you get the following by matching the values of wave functions and their derivatives: ✓ A + B = C + D ✓ ik1(A – B) = ik2(C – D) ✓ ✓ So using these boundary conditions to solve for E gives you The transmission coefficient T is Doing the algebra on the two previous equations gives you the answer:

64 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics n Calculate the reflection coefficient, R, for the wave function where E > V0 and and where ✓ ✓ ✓ where and . The answer is You start from the wave equation ✓ ✓ ✓ where and . You can determine A, B, C, D, and E from the boundary conditions: ✓ ψ1(0) = ψ2(0) ✓ ✓ ψ2(a) = ψ3(a) ✓ The reflection coefficient R is

65Chapter 2: No Handcuffs Involved: Bound States in Energy Wells Doing the math (using boundary conditions to solve for A and B) gives youo Find the wave function (up to arbitrary normalization coefficients) for a particle encountering the following potential barrier where the energy of the particle is E < V0 (that is, the particle has less energy than the potential barrier this time) Here’s the answer: ✓ ✓ ✓ where and . In this case, the particle doesn’t have as much energy as the potential of the barrier. Therefore, the Schrödinger equation looks like this for x < 0: Here’s what the Schrödinger equation looks like for 0 ≤ x ≤ a: where is impossible physic.aHlleyr.eS,ohcohwaenvgeer,thEe–sVig0nisinletshsethScahnr0ö,dwinhgicehr would make k imaginary, which equation from plus to minus: And use the following value for k2: For the region x > a, here’s what the Schrödinger equation looks like: where .

66 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics Solve the differential equations to find the solutions for ψ1(x), ψ 2(x), and ψ 3(x), which are ✓ ✓ ✓ There’s no leftward traveling wave in the region x > a; F = 0, so ψ3(x) isp Calculate the reflection and transmission coefficients for a particle hitting a potential barrier of V0 where the particle’s energy E < V0 and and where ✓ ✓ ✓ where and . The answers are . ✓ . The reflection and transmission coefficients are ✓ where and Start with this wave equation: ✓ ✓ ✓ where and ✓ ✓

67Chapter 2: No Handcuffs Involved: Bound States in Energy Wells You determine A, B, and E using these boundary conditions: ✓ ψ1(0) = ψ 2(0) ✓ ✓ ψ2(a) = ψ3(a) ✓ Doing the algebra to solve for R and T, and solving for A, B, and C using boundary conditions, gives you ✓ ✓

68 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics

Chapter 3 Over and Over with Harmonic OscillatorsIn This Chapter▶ Eyeing the total energy with the Hamiltonian operator▶ Using raising and lowering operators to solve for energy states▶ Examining how harmonic oscillator operators work with matrices Harmonic oscillators are big in many branches of physics, including quantum phys- ics. Classically, harmonic oscillators involve springs, pendulums, and other devices that you can measure with a stopwatch. When you’re working with harmonic oscillators like springs and pendulums, you’re looking at the macroscopic, classical picture. Springs and pendulums measured classically can have continuous energy levels, depending on the amount you stretch the spring or the angle at which you start the pendulum. When you get to quantum physics, however, the story is different. The realm of quantum physics is the microscopic realm because that’s where quantum physics effects become evident. In the case of harmonic oscillators, you deal with microscopic systems where a restoring force tends to keep particles in their position; for example, the atoms in a solid can act like harmonic oscillators, vibrating in place furiously, depending on the temperature of the solid. Each atom has kinetic energy, so it’s in motion, but at the same time, electro- static forces restore it to its original position, so it vibrates. As always in quantum physics, you can’t define the position or energy of harmonic oscilla- tors on the quantum physics level with complete certainty, but you can describe those quan- tities in terms of probabilities — and that means you can work with probability amplitudes, as represented by wave functions. The energy levels of quantum physical harmonic oscilla- tors are quantized — that is, only certain energy levels are allowed. And when you have wave functions, you can also have operators to work on those wave functions. This chapter focuses on all aspects related to harmonic oscillators — on the quantum level — and helps you solve many types of problems. Note that I keep everything relatively simple in this chapter by restricting harmonic oscillators to one-dimensional motion. You can find a discussion of 3-D motion in Part III.

70 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics Total Energy: Getting On with a Hamiltonian The first step in solving for wave functions is usually to create a Hamiltonian operator, which tells you the allowed energy states. The wave functions are the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian, and the allowed energy levels are the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian, like this (see Chapter 1 for info on eigenvalues and eigenstates): You can use a Hamiltonian with harmonic oscillators to help you find a system’s energy level — that’s what Hamiltonians are all about; they’re the equations that give you the energy of the system. The following example looks at a problem in classical terms, and the follow-up questions extrapolate into the quantum physics realm.Q . As the first step toward describing har- In classical physics, the definition for acceleration is monic oscillators in quantum physical terms, find the motion of classical har- monic oscillators. Assume the object in So you can also substitute for a. Rewrite harmonic oscillator motion has mass m the oscillation equation as and the restoring force is F = –kx, where x is the distance the object is from its equilibrium position (where there’s no Divide by the mass to get net force acting on the object) and k is the spring constant.A . , where . Hooke’s law tells you that the force on an For a classical harmonic oscillator, you object in harmonic oscillation is know that , where ω is the F = –kx angular frequency; therefore, taking Because by Newton’s Second Law, F = gives you ma, where m is the mass of the particle in harmonic motion and a is its instanta- neous acceleration, you can substitute ma for F in the oscillation equation. Finally, solve this differential equation Rewrite the equation as F = –kx = ma, or for x: equivalently ma + kx = 0 The solution is an oscillating one.

71Chapter 3: Over and Over with Harmonic Oscillators1 . Determine the quantum physical 2 . Use the Hamiltonian from the preceding Hamiltonian operator for harmonic oscilla- problem to create an energy eigenvector tors, giving the total energy of the harmonic and energy eigenvalue equation for quan- oscillator (that’s the sum of the kinetic and tum physical harmonic oscillators. potential energies) by adapting the classical energy equation so that position and Solve It momentum, x and p, become the operators X and P that return the position and momen- tum when applied to a wave function. Solve It

72 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics Up and Down: Using Some Crafty Operators When handling quantum physics harmonic oscillator problems, you usually use one of two operators to make dealing with harmonic oscillators much easier (because you don’t have to know the explicit form of the state vectors): ✓ Raising operator (creation operator): This operator raises the energy level of an eigen- state by one level. For example, if the harmonic oscillator is in the second energy level, this operator raises it one level to the third energy level. ✓ Lowering operator (annihilation operator): Although one of this operator’s names makes it sound like a sequel to a sci-fi movie, this operator reduces eigenstates by one level. Basically, these two operators allow you to comprehend the entire energy spectrum just by eyeing the energy difference between eigenstates. So to start solving these harmonic oscillator problems, you first have to introduce two new operators, p and q, which are dimensionless. These operators relate to the P (momentum) operator and the X (location) operator this way: ✓ ✓ You use these two new operators, p and q, as the basis of the lowering operator, a, and the raising operator, : ✓ ✓ Check out the following example using the raising and lowering operators; then try a couple of problems.Q . Write the harmonic oscillator The Hamiltonian and the p and q opera- tors both involve P and X, which means Hamiltonian in terms of the raising and you can perform some substitutions. lowering operators. First rearrange the p and q equations by solving for P and X: A. , where . • • The Hamiltonian looks like this: And the p and q operators are equal to Substitute the values of P and X into the • Hamiltonian. Then use the fact that , where and • , to get the answer:

73Chapter 3: Over and Over with Harmonic Oscillators3 . The operator, which is called the 4. What are the first three energy levels of a number operator (N), returns the number harmonic oscillator in terms of ω? of the energy state that the harmonic oscil- lator is in (that is, 2 for the second excited Solve It state, 3 for the third excited state, and so on). Write the Hamiltonian in terms of N and write an equation showing how to use N on the harmonic oscillator eigenstates. Solve It

74 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum PhysicsFinding the Energy after Using theRaising and Lowering OperatorsAs in any quantized system, only certain energy levels are allowed for quantum harmonicoscillators. Finding those energy levels is the goal of this section. To find the energy, youdesignate a harmonic oscillator energy eigenvector like this: . This is the eigenvector forthe nth energy level. When you apply the lowering operator, a, you’re supposed to get the eigenvector (up to an arbitrary constant): .How can you verify that you’re getting the eigenvector ? One way is to apply theHamiltonian like this to measure the new energy eigenvector’s energy: . This shouldturn out to be To verify an expression like , you have to move the H operator past the a operator, which means you have to start by finding the commutator of a and H. (The commutator of operators A and B is [A, B] = AB – BA; see Chapter 1 for details.) This is an important step in finding the allowed energy levels.Now look over the example problem and try the practice problems.Q . What is the commutator of the lowering In the example in the preceding section, you find that operator and the Hamiltonian [a, H]?And what is the commutator of the raising operator and the Hamiltonian ? A. and . Therefore, you get the following answers by plugging in the value of H and Start with the commutator of a and : simplifying: • Through the definition of commutators, • this becomes which gives you the following:

75Chapter 3: Over and Over with Harmonic Oscillators5 . Evaluate in terms of En, the energy 6 . Evaluate in terms of En, the ), given that of (that is, energy of (that is, ), given . that . Solve It Solve It

76 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum PhysicsUsing the Raising and Lowering OperatorsDirectly on the EigenvectorsSometimes you may need to apply the two operators directly to the eigenvectors, particu-larly to find the corresponding raised or lowered eigenvectors. To do so, first apply theHamiltonian like this: ✓ ✓ Now what if you were to use the raising and lowering operators directly on the eigenvectors to find the corresponding raised or lowered eigenvectors? You’d expect something like this: ✓ ✓ where C and D are positive constants. But what do C and D equal?The tool you have in solving this question is a constraint: , , and must all benormalized. What is that normalization condition? The following example shows you how tosolve this type of problem, and the practice problems have you find C and D. Q. What is the normalization condition that A . , , andconstrains , , and ? . All eigenvectors must be normalized such that . Set the bras and kets equal to 1 to get the answer. 7. Find C, where . 8 . Find D, where . Solve It Solve It

77Chapter 3: Over and Over with Harmonic OscillatorsFinding the Harmonic OscillatorGround State Wave FunctionFinding the wave function is important because if you’ve found the wave function, you’vefound out how the particle in harmonic oscillation moves. This section starts with theground state wave function. So just what is ? Can’t you get a spatial eigenstate of thiseigenvector? Something like ψ0(x), not just ?In other words, you want to find . To do so, you need an equation of somekind, and you can find that when you realize that when you apply the lowering operator to , you end up with 0. So the equation you need use to find the ground state wave functionis .To work with the raising and lowering operators in position space, you need the representa-tions of a and in position space. Check out the following example for more help; then trythe practice problems. Q. What are the representations of a and Now find the a operator. You know in position space? that and that A. and . Plug the value of q into the a operator. Here’s what you get: , where X is the position operator and . The p operator is defined as Finally, factor out and rewrite the equation as Because , you can substitute for Similarly, turns out to be this: the P in the p operator equation. Here’s what this change gives you: You know that , so you can make another substitution:

78 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics9 . Find the ground state wave function — up 1 0. Normalize the ground state wave functionto an arbitrary normalization constant —of the harmonic(othscaitlliast,othr,eψlo0(wx)e,rsintagrotipnegra- Cψh0(axp).te(rFo2r.)more on normalizing, seefromtor on must give 0). Solve ItSolve It

79Chapter 3: Over and Over with Harmonic OscillatorsFinding the Excited States’ Wave Functions Sometimes you have to find the ground state wave function for a harmonic oscillator in higher swtaatveesf,uψn1c(xti)o,nψs2(oxf)a, and so on. To do so, just use the following well-known formula for the harmonic oscillator: where . But what’s Hn(x)? That’s the nth Hermite polynomial, which is defined this way: In this section, the example problem and practice problems deal with wave functions for excited states. Note that when solving problems related to proton displacement, you may need to convert all length measurements into femtometers (1 fm = 1 × 10–15 m).Q . fDoerrmivuelaψf1o(xr)ψwn(ixth).out using the preceding Because equ=atψio0(nx:), replace in the preceding A. , where . Now find the derivative and simplify: You know that and . So replace in the first which becomes equation, which gives you the following: Also, you know that is You know that Substitute for in the wave function Plug fionrtthheevfairlsuteefxocritψe0d(xs)tainteto, wthheicehqua- equation to get tion gives you the answer:

80 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics1 1. What is the differential equation that 1 2. What are the first six Hermite polynomials? describes ψ2(x) in terms of ψ0(x)? Solve It Solve It

81Chapter 3: Over and Over with Harmonic Oscillators1 3. Say that you have a proton undergoing har- 1 4. Say that you have a proton undergoing har- monic oscillation with ω = 4.58 × 1021 sec–1. monic oscillation with ω = 4.58 × 1021 sec–1. What are the first four energy levels? What are the first three wave functions? Solve It Solve It

82 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics Looking at Harmonic Oscillators in Matrix Terms Harmonic oscillators have regularly spaced energy levels, so they’re often viewed at in terms of matrices. For example, the following matrix may be the ground state eigenvector (for an infinite vector): And this may be the second excited state, : You can handle harmonic oscillators using matrices instead of wave functions. The follow- ing example shows you how to do so.

83Chapter 3: Over and Over with Harmonic OscillatorsQ . What is the number operator, N, in Here’s what gives you: matrix terms? Demonstrate that N works properly on the eigenvector.A . Doing the matrix multiplication gives you the following: The N operator, which just returns the energy level, would look like this: In other words, , which is what you’d expect.

84 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics1 5. What is the lowering operator, a, in matrix 1 6. What is the raising operator, , in matrix terms? Verify that it worked on the state. terms? Verify that it worked on the state. Solve It Solve It

85Chapter 3: Over and Over with Harmonic OscillatorsAnswers to Problems on Harmonic Oscillators The following are the answers to the practice questions presented in this chapter. You can see the original questions, and answers in bold, and the answers worked out, step by step. a Determine the quantum physical Hamiltonian operator for harmonic oscillators, giving the total energy of the harmonic oscillator (that’s the sum of the kinetic and potential energies) by adapting the classical energy equation so that position and momentum, x and p, become the operators X and P that return the position and momentum when applied to a wave function. Here’s the answer: The Hamiltonian is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies: H = KE + PE To solve this problem, you need to know the kinetic and potential energy in terms of momentum and position. The kinetic energy at any one moment is where p is the particle’s momentum. And the particle’s potential energy is equal to where k is the spring constant and . Now replace p and x with the P and X operators in the Hamiltonian, KE + PE:b Use the Hamiltonian from the preceding problem to create an energy eigenvector and energy eigen- value equation for quantum physical harmonic oscillators. You use the Hamiltonian with eigenvectors and eigenvalues like this: where E is the energy eigenvalue of the eigenstate . Now rewrite using the Hamiltonian equa- tion from problem 1 to get the following:

86 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physicsc The operator, which is called the number operator (N), returns the number of the energy state that the harmonic oscillator is in (that is, 2 for the second excited state, 3 for the third excited state, and so on). Write the Hamiltonian in terms of N and write an equation showing how to use N on the harmonic oscillator eigenstates. The answers are and where is the nth excited state. Given that and that , you can write the Hamiltonian H as Now denote the eigenstates of N as , which gives you this: where n is the number of the nth state. d What are the first three energy levels of a harmonic oscillator in terms of ω? Here are the answers: ✓ ✓ ✓ and , you can set En equal to the value of H: Because Now just plug in the numbers for n and simplify to find the first three energy levels. The energy of the ground state (n = 0) is And the first excited state (n = 1) is And the second excited state (n = 2) has an energy ofe Evaluate in terms of En, the energy of (that is, ), given that . . You want to find

87Chapter 3: Over and Over with Harmonic Oscillators Using the commutator of [a, H] to move the H operator closer to , this equals So applying the Hamiltonian operator H, you get Therefore, is also an eigenvector of the harmonic oscillator, with energy .f Evaluate in terms of En, the energy of (that is, ), given that .. You want to find Using the commutator of to get H to work on , this equals Apply the Hamiltonian: This means that is an eigenstate of the harmonic oscillator, with energy , not just En.g Find C, where . C = n1/2. Start with this expression: This expression equals the following, by the definition of the raising and lowering operators: And because is normalized, . Simplify the right side of the equation: You also know that , the energy level operator, and that Because , you know that Because , where n is the energy level, you get the following: But , so

88 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics Because you know that and also that , you get C2 = n, or C = n1/2 Therefore, .h Find D, where . D = (n + 1)1/2. Start with this expression: which equals And because is normalized, , so You know that , the energy level operator, and also that . Use the fact that to get Because , you know that Because , where n is the energy level, you get the following: But , so Because and , you get D2 = n + 1 D = (n + 1)1/2 which meansi Find the ground state wave function — up to an arbitrary normalization constant — of the h armonic oscillator, ψ0(x), starting from (that is, the lowering operator on must give 0). . Start with this equation:

89Chapter 3: Over and Over with Harmonic Oscillators Apply the bra, which gives you Substitute for a using its position representation: You know that , so replace and with ψ0(x). Distributing gives you the following: Now multiply both sides by , which gives you Isolate the differential equation on one side of the equal sign: Finally, solve this differential equation. Here’s what you get:j Normalize the ground state wave function ψ0(x). , so If , you want to find A. Wave functions must be normalized, so you know that the following equation must be true: Substituting for ψ0(x) gives you Move the constant A outside of the integral:

90 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics Evaluate the integral to get the following: Take the equation 1 = A2π1/2x0 and solve for A: Now fill in the value of A in the wave function for the ground state of a harmonic oscillator. Here’s what you get: k What is the differential equation that describes ψ2(x) in terms of ψ0(x)? You can find ψ2(x) from this equation: Substitute for , which gives you You can generalize this differential equation for ψn(x) like this: l What are the first six hermite polynomials? Here are your answers: ✓ H0(x) = 1 ✓ H1(x) = 2x ✓ H2(x) = 4x2 – 2 ✓ H3(x) = 8x3 – 12x ✓ H4(x) = 16x4 – 48x2 + 12 ✓ H5(x) = 32x5 – 160x3 + 120x

91Chapter 3: Over and Over with Harmonic Oscillators Here’s how to find Hn(x): To find the first six hermite polynomials, simply perform the calculations for n = 0 through n = 5. m Say that you have a proton undergoing harmonic oscillation with ω = 4.58 × 1021 sec–1. What are the first four energy levels? The answers are ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ You know that in general To find the first four energy levels of the proton, perform the calculations for n = 0 through n = 3. n Say that you have a proton undergoing harmonic oscillation with ω = 4.58 × 1021 sec–1. What are the first three wave functions? Here are the answers: ✓ ✓ ✓ where x is measured in femtometers (fm). The general form of ψn(x) is where (1 fm.=P1lu×g1in0–t1h5 emn),ugmivbienrgsy, ox0u=x30 .=713.×7110fm–15. m, and convert all length measurements into femtometers That makes ψ0(x) equal to where x is measured in fm.

92 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics Now plug in n = 1 and n = 2 into the general form ψn(x) to find the first two excited states: ✓ ✓ o What is the lowering operator, a, in matrix terms? Verify that it worked on the state. The answer is The lowering operator looks like this: The lowering operator should give you And is

93Chapter 3: Over and Over with Harmonic Oscillators Now perform the matrix multiplication. Here’s what you get: In other words, , just as expected.p What is the raising operator, , in matrix terms? Verify that it worked on the state. The answer is Here’s how the raising operator works in general: In matrix terms, looks like this:

94 Part I: Getting Started with Quantum Physics You expect that . The matrix multiplication is And this equals So , as it should.

Part IIRound and Round with Angular Momentum and Spin

Q In this part . . .uantum physics puts its own spin on the angular momentum problems you see in classical physics.In fact, particles have rotational energy in addition tokinetic and potential energy, and electrons have a kindof intrinsic angular momentum called spin. Angularmomentum and spin are important topics in quantumphysics because they’re both quantized — a conceptthat classical physics can’t handle. In this part, you getto tackle problems on each topic.

Chapter 4 Handling Angular Momentum in Quantum PhysicsIn This Chapter▶ Working with angular momentum▶ Using angular momentum in the Hamiltonian▶ Finding the matrix representation of angular momentum▶ Determining the eigenfunctions of angular momentum In addition to linear kinetic and potential energy (see Chapters 2 and 3), quantum phys- ics also deals with the energy associated with angular momentum if an item is spinning. When handling angular momentum, you start with the Hamiltonian, just as with linear energy types. In this case of angular momentum, the Hamiltonian looks like this:Here, L is the angular momentum operator and I is the rotational moment of inertia. Angular momentum is a vector in three-dimensional space; it can be pointing any direction.Angular momentum is usually given by a magnitude and a component in one direction, whichis usually the Z direction. So in addition to the magnitude l, you also specify the componentof L in tdhireeZctdioirne;cytoiounc, aLnz. (Note: The choice of Z is arbitrary — you can just as easily use theX or Y assume that there’s some reason to choose the Z direction, such asa magnetic field that exists along that direction.)If the quantum number of the Z component of the angular momentum is designated by m,then the complete eigenstate is given by , so you get the following:This chapter takes a look at problems involving angular momentum, including finding theangular momentum eigenvectors and eigenvalues involved with this Hamiltonian.

98 Part II: Round and Round with Angular Momentum and Spin Rotating Around: Getting All Angular This section brings you up to speed on angular momentum, taking as its example a disk that’s in rotation. Because the disk has mass and is rotating, it has angular momentum. Figure 4-1 shows an example of a rotating disk that illustrates angular momentum. z Lz x Figure 4-1: y A rotating disk. The disk’s angular momentum vector, L, is perpendicular to the plane of rotation. If you wrap your right hand in the direction something is rotating, your right thumb points in the direction of the L vector. L is a vector in three-dimensional space, which means that it can point anywhere, which means that it has x, yth, aatndis,zpcoosmitipoonnteinmtess: Lmx,oLmy,eanntudmL.z.YNooutecatnhaatlsLoiswtrhitee vector product of R and P (L = R × P) — Lx , Ly , and Lz as the following: ✓ Lx = YPz – ZPy ✓ Ly = ZPx – XPz ✓ Lz = XPy – YPx Hdierreec,tPioxn, sP,ya, nadndX,PYz ,aarendthZe momentum operators, returning the momentum in the x, y, and z are the position operators, which return the position in the x, y, and z position. Note that you can also write the momentum operators Px, Py, and Pz as ✓ ✓ ✓ Keep reading for an example and some practice problems.

99Chapter 4: Handling Angular Momentum in Quantum PhysicsQ . Write Lx entirely in position space. 2. Substitute for the position operatorsA . . Here’s how you and factor the equation. You want to replace the Pz and Py. You know that solve the problem:1. Write the equation for Lx in terms of • the position operators. • The equation says that Lx = YPz – ZPy So make the substitution and factor out . Here’s what you get: 1 . Write Ly entirely in position space. 2. Write Lz entirely in position space. Solve It Solve It

100 Part II: Round and Round with Angular Momentum and SpinUntangling Things with CommutatorsWhen applying operators to eigenvectors, you usually want to know what the operators’commutators look like. That lets you change the order the operators are applied in, whichis how you figure out what the eigenvalues of the eigenvector are. To do so, you figure outthe commutator of two operators to get an idea of what happens when you apply thoseoperators in order. The trick here is to remember that the square of the angular momentum, L2, is a scalar (thatis, just a simple number), not a vector, so it commutes with the Lx , Ly , and Lz operators.That is ✓ [L2, Lx] = 0 ✓ [L2, Ly] = 0 ✓ [L2, Lz] = 0The story is a little more involved when you’re finding commutators like [Lx , Ly]. The follow-ing example explains how to do so. Q. What’s the commutator of Lx and Ly? Group the terms:A . . [Lx, Ly] = Y[Pz , Z]Px + X[Z, Pz]Py Substitute in for the two commutators: tFuirmstawnrditpeo[sLixt,ioLny]oinpetreartmosrso. fInthtehemporme-en- ceding section, I give you the equations Lmxa=kiYnPgzt–heZPsyuabnsdtitLuyt=ioZnPs,x y–oXuPkz.nSoow that YsuobusktintuotwioXnPtyo–gYePt xth=eLfzin, saol amnaswkeerth: e by definition, the following is true: [Lx, Ly] = [YPz – ZPy , ZPx – XPz] Rewrite the equation using the distribu- tive law: [Lx , Ly] = [[ ZYPPyz,, ZZPPxx]] – [[ZYPPyz,,XXPPzz]] – +

101Chapter 4: Handling Angular Momentum in Quantum Physics 3. What’s the commutator of Ly and Lz? 4 . What’s the commutator of Lz and Lx? Solve It Solve It

102 Part II: Round and Round with Angular Momentum and SpinNailing Down the AngularMomentum EigenvectorsThis section focuses on the eigenvectors of angular momentum. You want to find the eigen-states of angular momentum here as preparation for deriving their eigenvalues and deter-mining what values angular momentum can take on a quantum level.You start by assuming that the eigenvectors look like and thatIn other words, the eigenvalue of L2 is , where you have yet to solve for α. Also, theeigenvalue of Lz isTo keep going, you need to introduce raising and lowering operators. That way, you can solvefor the ground state by, for example, applying the lowering operator to the ground state, set-ting the result equal to zero, and then solving for the ground state itself.LHthzeiqrseuw,atanhyteu: mrainsuinmgboepre. rYaotourciasnLd+ eafnindeththeelorwaiesrininggooppeerraatotorr, Lis+,La–n, dantdhethloewy erariinseg and lower the operator, L–, ✓ Raising: L+ = Lx + iLy ✓ Lowering: L– = Lx – iLy Note that you can get the x and y components of the angular momentum with the raising and lowering operators: ✓ ✓ Q. What is L2 in terms of L+, L–, and Lz? You can also derive that A. . , so substitute terms in: You know that . Using the definition of L, this equals It’s also true that [L2, L±] = 0. Isolate L2 on the left side of the equation:

103Chapter 4: Handling Angular Momentum in Quantum Physics 5. If is an angular momentum 6. If is an angular momentume igenvector, what is ? e igenvector, what is ?Solve It Solve It

104 Part II: Round and Round with Angular Momentum and SpinObtaining the Angular Momentum Eigenvalues The preceding section shows you how to nail down the eigenvectors for angular momen- tum. In quantum physics, you also need to know how to find the eigenvalues for angular momentum because they’re the actual values that angular momentum is allowed to take for a specific system. To find the exact eigenvalues of L2 and Lz , you apply these operators to . The following example shows you how to do so. Q. What are the eigenvalues L2 and Lz?when Applying the lowering operator to this you apply these operators to also gives you zero:A . and , where you’ve And from the definition of raising and renamed the maximum possible value lowering operators, you can say of β (βmax) as l and have renamed β as m. You know that L2 – sLoz2 = L–x2L+z2 L≥y20,.wThhiacth is a positive number, L2 means that You can substitute for L–L+ and get the following: And substituting in and gives you the following: Now put in and . Here’s what you get: Solving the inequality for α tells you that Now solve for α: α ≥ β2 α = βmax(βmax + 1) So there’s a maximum possible value of It’s usual to rename βmax as l and β as m, β, which you call βmax. so becomes ; so here are the answers: There must be a state such that you can’t raise β anymore, which means • that if you apply the raising operator, you get zero: • And this gives you the eigenvalues of L2 panhdysLicz,atllhyetvaakleu.es those quantities can

105Chapter 4: Handling Angular Momentum in Quantum Physics7 . Derive the allowed values for l and m in the 8 . Using the angular momentum Hamiltonian, eigenvector . derive the following relation: Solve It Solve It

106 Part II: Round and Round with Angular Momentum and Spin Scoping Out the Raising and Lowering Operators’ Eigenvalues In the earlier sections, you use the raising and lowering operators, but you haven’t figured out their eigenstates yet. So what values do you get when you raise or lower the eigenvalues of angular momentum? The raising and lowering operators work like this:You need to determine what the constant c is. Doing so lets you apply the raising opera-tor directly. The following example shows you how to do so. Then you can try a couple ofexample problems.Q . If , what is c? A. , so . gives you a new state, and multiplying that new state by its transpose (see Chapter 2) should give you c2: To see this, note that On the other hand, also note that So you have Earlier in the chapter, you see that Therefore, you replace L–L+ to get the following: Find the square root of both sides. That means that c is equal to

107Chapter 4: Handling Angular Momentum in Quantum Physics What is ? Apply the L2 and Lz operators to get the following: , you have this relation: And that’s the eigenvalue of L+. And because 9. If , what is c? 1 0. What is ? Solve It Solve It

108 Part II: Round and Round with Angular Momentum and Spin Treating Angular Momentum with Matrices When the levels of angular momentum are evenly spaced, you can treat angular momentum with matrices. Doing so makes handling angular momentum easy. For example, say you have a system with angular momentum, with the total angular momentum quantum number l = 1. That means that m can take the values –1, 0, and 1. So you can represent the three pos- sible angular momentum states like this: ✓ ✓ ✓ Okay, that’s what the eigenvectors would look like for an l = 1 system. Now what would the various operators look like? The following example and the practice problems show you how to figure it out.

109Chapter 4: Handling Angular Momentum in Quantum Physics Q. In matrix terms, what would the operator L2 look like for an l = 1 system? A. You can write L2 this way in matrix form by using an expectation value in every place: You know that , that , that , and so on, so this becomes And you can factor out and write this as All of which is to say that in matrix form, the equation becomes which means that

110 Part II: Round and Round with Angular Momentum and Spin1 1. In matrix terms, what would the operator 12. In matrix terms, what would the operator L+ look like for an l = 1 system? L– look like for an l = 1 system? Solve It Solve It

111Chapter 4: Handling Angular Momentum in Quantum Physics 13. In matrix terms, what would the operator 1 4. In matrix terms, what would the operators Lz look like for an l = 1 system? Lx and Ly look like for an l = 1 system? Solve It Solve It

112 Part II: Round and Round with Angular Momentum and Spin Answers to Problems on Angular Momentum The following explanations are the answers to the practice questions I present ear- lier in this chapter. You can see the original questions, the answers in bold, and the answers worked out, step by step. a Write Ly entirely in position space. The answer is Write the equation for Ly in terms of the position operators: and , so Ly = ZPx – XPz Then substitute for the position operators. You know thatb Write Lz entirely in position space. The answer is and , so make Write the equation for Lz in terms of the position operators: Lz = XPy – YPx Now substitute for the position operators. You know that the substitution and factor the equation:c What’s the commutator of Ly and Lz? . oLyp=erZaPtox r–sX: Pz and Lz = XPy – YPx, so write [Ly, Lz] in terms of the momentum and position[Ly, Lz] = [ZPx – XPz , XPy – YPx] Regroup on the right side of the equation: [Ly, Lz] = [ZPx , XPy] – [ZPx , YPx] – [XPz , XPy] + [XPz , YPx] Factor out Z and Y: [Ly, Lz] = Z[Px , X]Py + Y[X, Px]Pz This equals But YPz – ZPy = Lx, so

113Chapter 4: Handling Angular Momentum in Quantum Physicsd What’s the commutator of Lz and Lx? . WthraitteLx[L=z[,YLPx]z in terms of the momentum and position operators. You know that Lz = XPy – YPx and – ZPy], so [Lz , Lx] = [XPy – YPx , YPz – ZPy] Regroup this way: [Lz , Lx] = [XPy , YPz] – [XPy , ZPy] – [YPx , YPz] + [YPx , ZPy] Factor out X and Z: [Lz , Lx] = X[Py , Y]Pz + Z[Y, Py]Px This equals But ZPx – XPz = Ly , soe If is an angular momentum eigenvector, what is ? , where c is a constant. You want to see what is. Start by applying the Lz operator on it like this: You can see that , so . Substitute for LzL+ to get the following: , so do the substitution: Therefore, you’ve just proven that the eigenstate is also an eigenstate of the Lz operator, with an eigenvalue of (β + 1): wSihmeirlaerclyi,stahecolonwstearnint.gSooptehreatLo+rodpoeersattohrish:as the effect of raising the β quantum number by 1.f If is an angular momentum eigenvector, what is ? . Because L2 is a scalar, it commutes with everything. L2 L+ – L+ L2 = 0, so the following is true:

114 Part II: Round and Round with Angular Momentum and Spin Because , you can make the following substitution: Similarly, the lowering operator, L–, gives you this:g Derive the allowed values for l and m in the eigenvector . The answers are , where l = 0, 1⁄2, 1, 3⁄2, ... and , where –l ≤ m ≤ l. In addition to a βmax, there must also be a βmin such that when you apply the lowering operator, L–, you get zero (you can’t go any lower than βmin). Here’s what that idea looks like mathematically: You can apply L+ on this equation as well: , so make the following substitution: which gives you Now solve for l: l – βmin2 + βmin = 0 l = βmin2 – βmin l = βmin(βmin – 1) And so you get from the definition of l that βmax = –βmin You reach by n successive applications of L– on , so write the following equation: βmax = βmin + n Combining the previous two equations, you get Therefore, βmax can be either an integer or half an integer (depending on whether n is even or odd). Because l = βmax, m = β, and n is a positive number, you see that –l ≤ m ≤ l

115Chapter 4: Handling Angular Momentum in Quantum Physics So the eigenstates are ; l is the total angular momentum quantum number, and m is the angular momentum along the z-axis quantum number. So you get the following equations: ✓ (or, put another way, –l ≤ m ≤ l) ✓ h Using the angular momentum Hamiltonian, derive the following relation: You end with At the beginning of the chapter, I note that the Hamiltonian for angular momentum problems is where I is the rotational moment of inertia, which is I = m1r12 + m2r22. You can also write this value as I = μr 2, where and . Plug in μr2 for I, and the Hamiltonian works out to be Applying the Hamiltonian to the eigenstates gives you And because , applying the Hamiltonian gives you The Hamiltonian finds allowed energy states, so you know that . Therefore, write the equation in terms of energy:i If , what is c? The answer is , so . gives you a new state, and multiplying that new state by its transpose should give you c2:

116 Part II: Round and Round with Angular Momentum and Spin To see that, note that according to the definition of the lowering operator On the other hand, also note that using the definition of the transpose ( )L − l, m † L − l, m = l, m L +L − l, m Therefore, you have the following: Earlier in the chapter, you see that , so plug in the value of L+L–. Here’s what you get: Take the square root of both sides. That means that c is equal to So what is ? Applying the L2 and Lz operators gives you the following: And that’s the eigenvalue of L+, which means you have this relation:j What is ? . You know that Here, l = 3 and m = 2, so plug in the numbers and perform the calculations:k In matrix terms, what would the operator L+ look like for an l = 1 system? Here’s the answer: Use the raising operator to get the following:

117Chapter 4: Handling Angular Momentum in Quantum Physics Here, l = 1, and m = 1, 0, and –1. So you have the following: ✓ ✓ ✓ Therefore, the L+ operator looks like this in matrix form: Note that would be And this equals So .l In matrix terms, what would the operator L– look like for an l = 1 system? Here’s the answer: You know that Here, l = 1 and m = 1, 0, and –1. So that means ✓ ✓ ✓ In other words, the L– operator looks like this in matrix form:

118 Part II: Round and Round with Angular Momentum and Spin That means that would be which equals So .m In matrix terms, what would the operator Lz look like for an l = 1 system? You know that ✓ ✓ ✓ So that means For example, equals And this equals So as you’d expect, .

119Chapter 4: Handling Angular Momentum in Quantum Physicsn In matrix terms, what would the operators Lx and Ly look like for an l = 1 system? and You know that and . L+ equals And L– equals So equals And is What’s the commutator, [Lx , Ly] = LxLy – LyLx , look like? First find LxLy: This equals

120 Part II: Round and Round with Angular Momentum and Spin And similarly, LyLx equals This equals So And this equals

Chapter 5 Spin Makes the Particle Go Round In This Chapter ▶ Finding spin eigenstates ▶ Writing spin operators ▶ Describing spin operators in matrix terms This chapter is all about the inherent spin built into some particles, such as electrons and protons. Spin is an intrinsic quality — it never goes away. Spin has no spatial component, so you can’t express spin using differential operators like the ones I discuss in Chapter 4. You can’t find wave functions for spin. So how do you look at spin? You need to use the bra and ket way of looking at spin — that is, using eigenvectors — because bras and kets aren’t tied to any specific representation in spatial terms (I introduce bras and kets in Chapter 1). This chapter walks you through plenty of practice opportunities to get a firmer grasp on spin. Unless you apply very strong magnetic fields to streams of electrons, you’re not likely to come across spin in real life. Its primary feature is that it adds another quantum number to particles like electrons and protons, giving them another quantum state to squeeze into. That’s important for particles with half-integral spin, the fermions, because no two fermions can occupy exactly the same quantum state — and spin doubles the number of quantum states available. Introducing Spin Eigenstates Eigenstates represent every possible state of the system. The good news is that if you’re already somewhat familiar with eigenstates for angular momentum (which I discuss in Chapter 4), you can apply what you already know to spin eigenstates. You use the same notation for spin eigenstates that you use for angular momentum, with only minor altera- tions. For spin eigenstates, you use ✓ A quantum number, s, that indicates the spin along the z-axis (this number corre- sponds to the magnitude l in angular momentum) ✓ A total spin quantum number, m or sometimes ms (which corresponds to the m in angular momentum) Note that there’s no true z-axis built in for spin — you introduce a z-axis when you apply a magnetic field; by convention, the z-axis is taken to be in the direction of the applied mag- netic field.

122 Part II: Round and Round with Angular Momentum and SpinJust as the notation for angular momentum eigenstates is , the eigenstates of spin arewritten as . For spin, the m quantum number can take the values –s, –s + 1, ..., s – 1, s. Some particles have integer spin, s = 0, 1, 2 and so on. For example, π mesons have spin s = 0, photons have s = 1, and so forth. Some particles, such as electrons, protons, and neutrons, have half-integer spin, s = 1⁄2. ∆ particles, on the other hand, have s = 3⁄2.Particles with half-integer spin (1⁄2, 3⁄2, and so on) are called fermions, and particles with inte-ger spins (0, 1, 2, 3, and so on) are called bosons. Q. What are the spin eigenstates of elec- A. and . trons, s = 1⁄2? The m quantum number can take the values –s, –s + 1, ..., s – 1, s.

1 . What are the spin eigenstates of photons, 123Chapter 5: Spin Makes the Particle Go Round s = 1? 2. What are the spin eigenstates of Solve It ∆ particles, s = 3⁄2? Solve It

124 Part II: Round and Round with Angular Momentum and Spin Saying Hello to the Spin Operators: Cousins of Angular Momentum To work with the spin eigenstates, you need to know the spin operators — that is, the rais- ing and lowering operators. You take a look at how such operators work here. ItsSnoi+mrqaspnuLdlay2n,SrtL–euz(pm,slLpap+ci,nheaynrLasdiiwcsLisin–t,hg(tshSaeenefodsCrplhitonhawpeoetpmreeirnor4gsat)toopanrrasemrStdo.2er(fesinpoeinndtsbhqyeuaLan2r,eaLdloz),g,LyS+z,wL(is–tphoipnaenirngautthloaerrszm).doTimrheaectntiitsou,nmy)o,oaupncedaran- The following example shows how to figure out these types of problems.Q . The S2 operator works like the L2 opera- The S2 operator works in a similar fash- tor. What are the eigenvalues of S2? ion. Simply replace each l in the angular A. . momentum formula with an s to create the spin version: In Chapter 4, you discover that the L2 operator gives you the following result when you apply it to an orbital angular momentum eigenstate:

125Chapter 5: Spin Makes the Particle Go Round3 . LTzhoepSezroaptoerr.aWtohraist defined in analogy to the 4 . toThgheyeetSiog+ etahnnevdaLSl+u–aeonspdoerfLaS–t+ooaprnsedraarSte–o?drse.fiWnehdatinaraenal- are the eigenvalues of Sz? Solve ItSolve It

126 Part II: Round and Round with Angular Momentum and Spin Living in the Matrix: Working with Spin in Terms of Matrices In this section, you see how to work with spin in terms of matrices. For simplicity, I restrict this discussion to spin 1⁄2 particles. What would the spin eigenstates look like in eigenvector form? The good news is that you have only two possible states (see Chapter 1 for more on matrices): ✓ The eigenstate is represented as such: is represented as such: ✓ The eigenstate Check out the following example and practice problems for clarification. Q. What does the S2 operator look like in matrix terms? A. The S2 operator looks like this in matrix terms, where each element stands for the S2 operator applied to a pair of states like : Using the definition of S2, that works out to be

5. What does the Sz operator look like in 127Chapter 5: Spin Makes the Particle Go Round matrix terms? 6 . mWahtartixdtoerthmesS?+ and S– operators look like inSolve It Solve It

128 Part II: Round and Round with Angular Momentum and SpinAnswers to Problems on Spin Momentum This section provides answers and explanations of the practice questions I present earlier in this chapter.a What are the spin eigenstates of photons, s = 1? The answers are , , and . The m quantum number can take the values –s, –s + 1, ..., s – 1, s, so m can be –1, 0, or 1. Therefore, the eigenvectors are and and .b What are the spin eigenstates of delta particles, s = 3⁄2? The answers are , , , and . The m quantum number can take the values –s, –s + 1, ..., s – 1, s, so you know the allowed m values are –3⁄2, –1⁄2, 1⁄2, and 3⁄2. So the eigenstates are and and and .c The Sz operator is defined in analogy to the Lz operator. What are the eigenvalues of Sz? . The Lz operator gives you this result when you apply it to an orbital angular momentum eigenstate: And by analogy, the Sz operator works the same way. Replace each l with an s to get the answer:d TeihgeenSv+aalnudesSo– foSp+earantdorSs–?aTrehedeafninsewdeirns analogy to the L+ and L– operator. What are the and are . L+ and L– work like this: ✓ ✓ Replace the l’s with s’s, and you get the spin raising and lowering operators.e What does the Sz operator look like in matrix terms? You can represent the Sz operator this way, as a matrix of all its values between the various bras and kets:

129Chapter 5: Spin Makes the Particle Go Round Following the definition of Sz (which I introduce earlier in the chapter), this works out to be As an example, check this answer on the eigenstate . Finding the z component looks like this: Put this in matrix terms. You get the following matrix product, using the definition of Sz and convert- ing the ket to an eigenvector (which just lists the possible states): Perform matrix multiplication to get the following: Finally, put it back into ket notation to get f What do the S+ and S– operators look like in matrix terms? Here are the answers: ✓ ✓ The S+ operator raises the z component of the spin, so it looks like this: And the lowering operator lowers the z component of the spin, so it looks like this:

130 Part II: Round and Round with Angular Momentum and Spin So for example, you can find out what equals. In matrix terms, it looks like Performing the multiplication gives you In ket form, this is .

Part IIIQuantum Physics in Three Dimensions

In this part . . .his part takes you into the third dimension of solv-Ting quantum physics problems. Knowing how tohandle 3-D problems is essential in quantum physicsbecause the world is three-dimensional (unlike theone-dimensional problems that I address at the startof this book). Here I show you how to handle quantumphysics in three-dimensional rectangular and spheri-cal coordinates.

Chapter 6Solving Problems in Three Dimensions: Cartesian CoordinatesIn This Chapter▶ Putting the Schrödinger equation in 3-D▶ Looking at free particles in the x, y, and z directions▶ Getting physical solutions with wave packets▶ Going from square wells to box wells▶ Working with 3-D harmonic oscillators Now you’re ready to take your study of quantum physics to three dimensions. The pre- vious chapters are all concerned with quantum physics in one dimension, but you live in a three-dimensional world, so this chapter takes you into the third dimension. (The good news: You don’t need 3-D glasses to practice these problems.) Solving problems in 3-D doesn’t have to be a scary prospect. It mostly involves working with problems that you can separate into three independent equations, one for each dimension. This chapter explains this process and shows you how to find the three-dimensional solu- tions in Cartesian (that is, rectangular) coordinates.Taking the Schrödinger Equationto Three Dimensions The Schrödinger equation is Hψ(x) = Eψ(x), and it lets you solve for the wave function of a particle. The H is the Hamiltonian, E is the energy of the system, and ψ(x) is the wave function of a particle in one dimension. When you take it to 3-D, you take a step closer to real life — after all, how many quantum wells are really just one dimension? Here’s what the Schrödinger equation looks like in one dimension:

134 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions To get to the third dimension, include the y and z components. You generalize the Schrödinger equation in three dimensions like this: That’s quite a long equation to remember. No worries, though — you can simplify this long equation by using the Laplacian operator. This operator helps you recast this into a more compact form. Here’s what the Laplacian looks like: So here’s the 3-D Schrödinger equation using the Laplacian: Even after simplifying this equation, it can still be quite difficult to solve. That’s why most quantum physics in 3-D limits itself to cases where this differential equation can be sepa- rated into one-dimensional versions. Q. Rewrite the Schrödinger equation in the case where V(x, y, z) = 0 for a free particle. A . (Hx + Hy + Hz)ψ(x, y, z) = Eψ(x, y, z), where • • • Start with the Schrödinger equation in three dimensions: A free particle is just what it sounds like — a particle with no forces on it. For a free particle, V(x, y, z) = 0, so the second term of the Schrödinger equation drops out. Having a free parti- cle also means that you can add the kinetic energy in each of the three dimensions to add up to the total energy. In the Schrödinger equation, the total energy equals So rewrite the total energy as the sum of the kinetic energy to get a new version of the Schrödinger equation: (Hx + Hy + Hz)ψ(x, y, z) = Eψ(x, y, z) where , , and .

135Chapter 6: Solving Problems in Three Dimensions: Cartesian Coordinates 1. If the potential V(x, y, z) can be written 2 . Assuming the potential can be written asas the sum of three linearly independentfunctions, V(x, tyh, ez)w=avVex(fxu)n+ctVioy(ny)ψ+(xV, zy(,zz)), SVc(hx,röy,dzin)g=eVr xe(qxu) a+tiVoyn(yi)nt+oVtzh(rze)e, berqeuaaktitohnes.what form willhave? Solve ItSolve It

136 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions Flying Free with Free Particles in 3-D The next types of problems you solve in 3-D are ones where you solve for the wave function of free particles. As you may expect, a 3-D free particle wave function is much like a one- dimensional wave function, extended to three dimensions. For a free particle, the potential is always zero, V(x) = V(y) = V(z) = 0, so the Schrödinger equation becomes the following three equations: ✓ ✓ ✓ To make things somewhat simpler, you can rewrite these equations in terms of the wave number, k:Divide both sides of each equation by , and you can plug in k2 on the right side ofeach equation. Then the Schrödinger equation becomes the following: ✓ ✓ ✓ So you’ve separated the Schrödinger equation into three equations, and through this kind of divide-and-conquer operation, solving that equation becomes much easier. See the example and then try your hand at the practice problems.Q . Solve the x component of the The x component of the Schrödinger equation in 3-D is Schrödinger equation up to an arbitrary multiplicative constant: , where and A is Solve this differential equation. You get the following result: A. a normalization constant that you have yet to solve for. where A is a normalization constant that you have yet to solve for.

137Chapter 6: Solving Problems in Three Dimensions: Cartesian Coordinates 3. Solve for the y and z components of the 4. What is the total energy of the particle in Schrödinger equation up to an arbitrary terms of the wave numbers in all three multiplicative constant: dimensions, kx, ky, and kz? • Solve It• Solve It

138 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions Getting Physical by Creating Free Wave Packets A wave packet is a superposition of many different wave functions. You assemble the wave function of real particles into wave packets to make sure such wave functions are finite — otherwise, free-particle wave functions are just simple infinite plane waves. The wave function for a free particle in three dimensions looks like this: ψ(x, y, z) = X(x)Y(y)Z(z) where X(x), Y(y), and Z(z) are independent functions. The Schrödinger equation looks like this: ✓ ✓ ✓ The solution for the wave function, which you can find using information in the preceding section, is as follows: You can write this as a shortcut (where r is the radius vector): ψ(r) = Aei(k·r) You can show that the constant A equals the following by normalizing the wave packet (check out Chapter 2 for more on the one-dimensional version of A, which is cubed here for three dimensions): So you can write the wave function as That’s the solution to the Schrödinger equation, but there’s one problem — it’s unphysical (it can’t be normalized). The following example and practice problems look at this problem and how to fix it.

139Chapter 6: Solving Problems in Three Dimensions: Cartesian CoordinatesQ . Show that this wave function is unphysi- The problem is that the integral is unbounded: cal for a free particle: A . Therefore, the wave function cannot be normalized and is unphysical. For a wave function to be physical, you have to be able to normalize it. That means that the integral of its probability has to add up to 1 — in other words, this integral has to be bounded, not infinite:

140 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions 5. The key to finding the wave function of a 6. Start with the following form of a wave free particle in three dimensions is to con- packet (which you derive in problem 5): struct a wave packet. That looks like this, twhhiserseumϕnmisatthioenc: oefficient of each term in Assume that ϕ(k) is a Gaussian curve of Convert this summation into integral form, this form therefore creating a wave packet out of a continuum of wave functions. and solve for the wave packet’s wave func- Solve It tion by performing the integral. Solve It

141Chapter 6: Solving Problems in Three Dimensions: Cartesian Coordinates Getting Stuck in a Box Well Potential Not all particles are free; particles can also get stuck in potential wells. A stuck particle simply has energy that’s less than the height of the potential walls, so it can’t get out of the well. Particles can get stuck in a box potential, like the following (the three-dimensional ver- sion of a square well): ✓ Inside the box, V(x, y, z) = 0 ✓ Outside the box, V(x, y, z) = ∞ So you have the following, where Lx, Ly, and Lz are the boundaries of the well:Assuming that you can separate V(x, y, z) into the independent potentials Vgex(txt)h(eaffoulnlocwtiionng:only of x), Vy(y) (a function only of y), and Vz(z) (a function only of z), you ✓ ✓ ✓ The next example takes a closer look at this system. Later in this section, you take a look at two more aspects of box potentials: determining energy levels and normalizing the box potential wave functions.

142 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions Q . What is the Schrödinger equation for the box well potential? A . If you write the wave function like this ψ(x, y, z) = X(x)Y(y)Z(z) then the Schrödinger equation becomes • • • Write the general 3-D Schrödinger equation like this: Write out the Laplacian (see the earlier section “Taking the Schrödinger Equation to Three Dimensions”) to get the following: Because the potential is separable (that is, it operates independently in different dimen- sions), you can write ψ(x, y, z) as ψ(x, y, z) = X(x)Y(y)Z(z) Inside the box well, the potential — V(x, y, z) — equals zero, so the second term of the Schrödinger equation drops out. Therefore, the Schrödinger equation looks like this for x, y, and z: • • •

143Chapter 6: Solving Problems in Three Dimensions: Cartesian Coordinates7 . Rewrite the Schrödinger equation in terms 8. Assuming the wave function for the box of the wave number k, where . well potential has the form ψ(x, y, z) = X(x)Y(y)Z(z), use the Schrödinger equationSolve It to solve for the x component, X(x), up to arbitrary normalization constants. Solve It

144 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions Box potentials: Finding those energy levels As with other quantum physical situations, the energy levels of a particle in a box potential are quantized — only certain energy levels are allowed. You can find the allowed energy levels of a particle in a box potential because the wave function is constrained to go to zero at the boundaries of the box:This works because you can write the wave function like the following, where D is aconstant:ψ(x, y, z) = D sin(kxx) sin(kyy) sin(kzz) This wave function for a particle in a box potential is all sines because it’s constrained to goto zero at x = y=z = 0. Having to find where kxLx will make the sine go to zero constrains kx ,which in turn tells you the energy, becauseThis works similarly for the energies associated with the y and z directions.

145Chapter 6: Solving Problems in Three Dimensions: Cartesian Coordinates Q. Constrain kx, ky, and kz in terms of Lx, Ly, and Lz for a particle in the following box potential: A. The answers are • • • Note that the x component of the wave function must be zero at the box’s boundaries, so X(0) = 0 and X(Lx) = 0. The fact that ψ(0) = 0 tells you right away that the wave function must be a sine. And you oknf oπw, ththisatmXe(aLnxs) =thAatstinh(ekfxoLlxl)ow= i0n.gBiesctaruusee: the sine is zero when its argument is a multiple kxLx = nxπ nx = 1, 2, 3, ... Now solve for kx to get your answer: You find the equations for ky and kz the same way; therefore, the wave numbers kx , ky , and kz are • • • for the following box potential:

146 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions9 . Solve for atshseoecniaetregdiews iEthx, mEyo, vaenmdeEnzt, the 10. What are the total allowed energies for a energies in the x, y, and z directions. particle of mass m in the following box potential?Solve It Solve It Back to normal: Normalizing the wave function Wave functions have to be normalized — that is, the integral of their square has to be 1 when taken over all space, because the probability of the particle’s being somewhere in all space is equal to one. The wave function in a box potential has this form: ψ(x, y, z) = D sin(kxx) sin(kyy) sin(kzz) But what’s D? You need to normalize the wave function to find the value of this arbitrary con- stant. Check out the following example for more info on how to solve this type of problem.

147Chapter 6: Solving Problems in Three Dimensions: Cartesian Coordinates Q. Normalize the x component of the wave function of a particle in the following potential: A. Start with what the x component of the wave function looks like (Hint: It’s the solution to problem 8 from earlier in this chapter): To normalize the x component of the wave function, the following must be true: Plug the value of X(x) into the equation to get the following: Now take care of the integral by itself. Perform the integral, which gives you Then replace the integral with Lx/2, which gives you And solve for A: Finally, plug the value of A into the equation for the x component of the wave function, and you have your answer:

148 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions 11. Extend the previous result for X(x) to find 12. You have the following box potential, the form of ψ(x, y, z). where all sides are of equal length, L: Solve It Solve for a. The allowed energies b. The wave function Solve It

149Chapter 6: Solving Problems in Three Dimensions: Cartesian CoordinatesGetting in Harmony with 3-DHarmonic Oscillators This section extends one-dimensional harmonic oscillators into three dimensions. Here, you work with the Schrödinger equation, the wave function, and allowed energy levels. Check out Chapter 3 for how you handle harmonic oscillators in one dimension. Q. What is the Schrödinger equation for a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator? A. In three dimensions, the potential looks like this, the sum of the energies in all three dimensions: In general, the Schrödinger equation looks like this: Substitute in for the three-dimensional potential, V(x, y, z), to get the following equation:

150 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions 13. What is the wave function of a three- 1 4. What are the allowed energy levels of a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator in dimensional harmonic oscillator in terms antenurdmm nbsze?orfsωinx,eωayc,handdimωezn, swiohneraerethnex quantum of , , and , ny, , where the quantum Solve It numbers in each dimension are nx , ny , and nz?Solve It

151Chapter 6: Solving Problems in Three Dimensions: Cartesian CoordinatesAnswers to Problems on 3-DRectangular Coordinates Here are the answers to the practice questions I present earlier in this chapter.a If the potential V(x, y, z) can be written as the sum of three linearly independent functions, is V(x, y, z) = VXx((xx))Y+(yV)Zy((yz)).+ Vz(z), what form will the wave function ψ(x, y, z) have? The answer ψ(x, y, z) = The Schrödinger equation, which lets you solve for the wave function, looks like this in 3-D: If you can break up the potential V(x, y, z) into three independent functions, one for each dimension — aSschinröVd(ixn,gye,rze)q=uVatxi(oxn) +asVtyh(ye)p+rVodz(uzc)t—oftthherneeyoinudceapnenedxepnretsfusnthcteiownasvleikfeunthcitsio: n that solves the ψ(x, y, z) = X(x)Y(y)Z(z) where X(x), Y(y), and Z(z) are independent functions.b Assuming the potential can be written as V(x, y, z) = Vx(x) + Vy(y) + Vz(z), break the Schrödinger equa- tion into three equations. Here are your answers: ✓ ✓ ✓ where the wave function is ψ(x, y, z) = X(x)Y(y)Z(z). Assuming you can break the potential into three functions — V(x, y, tzo)g=etVhxe(rx:) + Vy(y) + Vz(z) — then you can break the Hamiltonian into three separate operators added Here, the total energy, E, is the sum of the x component’s energy plus the y component’s energy plus the z component’s energy: E = Ex + Ey + Ez So you have three independent Schrödinger equations for the three dimensions: ✓ ✓ ✓ where the wave function is ψ(x, y, z) = X(x)Y(y)Z(z).

152 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions c Solve for the y and z components of the Schrödinger equation up to an arbitrary multiplicative constant: ✓ ✓ and , where and and where B and C are normalization constants that you have yet to solve for. You need to solve for the y and z components of the Schrödinger equation in terms of an arbitrary constant. The y and z components look like this in 3-D: ✓ ✓ Solving these differential equations gives you the following: ✓ ✓ Note that because ψ(x, y, z) = X(x)Y(y)Z(z), you get the following for ψ(x, y, z): where D is a normalization constant you have yet to determine. The exponent here is the dot product of the vectors k and r, k · r. That is, if the vector a = (ax , ay , az) in terms of components and the vector b = (bx, by, bz), then the dot product of a and b is a · b = (axbx , ayby , azbz) So you can rewrite the wave function as ψ(x, y, z) = Deik·rd What is the total energy of the particle in terms of the wave numbers in all three dimensions, kx , ky , and kz? The answer is You can add up the energy in each of the three dimensions to get the total energy: E = Ex + Ey + Ez The energy of the x component of the wave function is

153Chapter 6: Solving Problems in Three Dimensions: Cartesian Coordinates Then add in the y and z components: Note ethnaetrgkyx2a+sky2 + kz2 is the square of the magnitude of k — that is, k2. So write the equation for the totale The key to finding the wave function of a free particle in three dimensions is to construct a wave packet. That looks like this, where ϕn is the coefficient of each term in this summation: Convert this summation into integral form, therefore creating a wave packet out of a continuum of wave functions. Here’s the answer: Here’s the sum that you want to convert to integral form: Convert the summation over the various k values to an integral over k. Here’s what you get:f Start with the following form of a wave packet (which you derive in problem 5): Assume that ϕ(k) is a Gaussian curve of this form and solve for the wave packet’s wave function by performing the integral. The answer is

154 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions The wave function for the wave packet looks like where . Begin by normalizing ϕ(k) to determine what A is. Here’s how that works: You make the necessary substitution from the previous equation to get Okay, so you need the value of the integral. Performing the integral gives you the following: Then solve for A: Plug the value of A back into the wave function, which gives you Finally, perform the integral, which gives you And that’s what the wave function for a Gaussian wave packet looks like in 3-D.g Rewrite the Schrödinger equation in terms of the wave vector k, where . Here are the answers: ✓ ✓ ✓

155Chapter 6: Solving Problems in Three Dimensions: Cartesian Coordinates If you write the wave function like ψ(x, y, z) = X(x)Y(y)Z(z), then the Schrödinger equation for the box well is ✓ ✓ ✓ , and you can rewrite these equations in Divide both sides of the each equation by terms of the wave vector, k, where The Schrödinger equation becomes ✓ ✓ ✓ Note that the particle just acts like a free particle inside the box. h Assuming the wave function for the box well potential has the form ψ(x, y, z) = X(x)Y(y)Z(z), use the Schrödinger equation to solve for the x component, X(x), up to arbitrary normalization constants. X(x) = A sin(kxx) + B cos(kxx). The Schrödinger equation for the x direction for the box well looks like this: Solve the differential equation, which gives you ✓ X1(x) = A sin(kxx) ✓ X2(x) = B cos(kxx) where A and B are constants that are yet to be determined. So the solution is the sum of X1(x) and X2(x): X(x) = A sin(kxx) + B cos(kxx)

156 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensionsi Solve fHoer rteheareenethrgeieasnEswx,eErys,:and Ez , the energies associated with movement in the x, y, and z direc- tions. ✓ ✓ ✓ The problem works the same for the x, y, and z directions, so you need to do calculations for only one direction. Because , you know that You want to know the energy, so solve for Ex: Now write the energy for the y and z directions, which are similarly ✓ ✓ j What are the total allowed energies for a particle of mass m in the following box potential? And the answers are

157Chapter 6: Solving Problems in Three Dimensions: Cartesian Coordinates The total energy of just the particle is just the total energy, E = Ex + Ey + Ez , which equals the following: k Extend the previous result for X(x) to find the form of ψ(x, y, z). The answer is You know the following equation from the example problem, solved for the x component of the wave function: Solve for Y(y) and Z(z). They work the same way, which gives you ✓ ✓ You know that ψ(x, y, z) = X(x)Y(y)Z(z) So substitute for the values of X(x), Y(y), Z(z). Here’s your answer: l You have the following box potential, where all sides are of equal length, L:

158 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions Solve for the allowed energies and the wave function. The allowed energy is And the wave function is where a. Solve for the allowed energies. In general, the energy levels of a particle in a box p otential are However, when the box is a cube, Lx , Ly , and Lz are equal. Factor the energy equation, and it becomes So, for example, the energy of the ground state, where nx = ny = nz = 1, is given by this: b. Solve for the wave function. The wave function for a cubic potential looks like this: So, for example, the ground state (nx = 1, ny = 1, nz = 1) ψ111(x, y, z) is

159Chapter 6: Solving Problems in Three Dimensions: Cartesian Coordinates And here’s ψ211(x, y, z): And ψ121(x, y, z): m What is the wave function of a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator in terms of , , and , where the quantum numbers in each dimension are nx, ny, and nz? Here’s the answer: Because you can separate the potential into three dimensions, you can write ψ(x, y, z) as ψ(x, y, z) = X(x)Y(y)Z(z) Therefore, the Schrödinger equation looks like this for x: Chapter 3 handles problems of this kind, and the solution looks like this: where and nx = 0, 1, 2, and so on. The Hn term indicates a Hermite polynomial, and here’s what H0(x) through H5(x) look like: ✓ H0(x) = 1 ✓ H1(x) = 2x ✓ H2(x) = 4x2 – 2 ✓ H3(x) = 8x3 – 12x ✓ H4(x) = 16x4 – 48x2 + 12 ✓ H5(x) = 32x5 – 160x3 + 120x To write the wave function, you need to include the y and z components, which work the same way as the x component. The wave function looks like this:

160 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensionsn What are the allowed energy levels of a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator in terms of ωisx , ωy, and ωz, where the quantum numbers in each dimension are nx, ny, and nz? The answer The energy of a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator is Now account for the x, y, and z directions. By extension, the energy of a 3-D harmonic oscillator is given by Note that if you have an isotropic harmonic oscillator, where ωx = ωy = ωz = ω, the energy levels look like this:

Chapter 7 Going Circular in Three Dimensions: Spherical CoordinatesIn This Chapter▶ Solving problems in spherical coordinates▶ Looking at free particles in spherical coordinates▶ Working with spherical wells▶ Doing problems with isotropic harmonic oscillators Some problems are built for rectangular coordinates, like the ones I discuss in Chapter 6. In those cases, you can look at potential and energy in the x, y, and z directions, and you can break the wave function into parts that correlate to those three dimensions. However, some problems in the 3-D world are set up for spherical coordinates instead. Spherical coordinates involve two angles and a radius vector. A spherical well is a potential well that’s a sphere, and it looks something like this: In this case, you have a potential that’s spherical, and it extends to a certain radius from the origin. Clearly, trying to solve for the wave function here in terms of rectangular coor- dinates would be very, very difficult. Instead, you use the spherical coordinate system you see in Figure 7-1. Notice how the spherical coordinate system, which uses the coordinates r, θ, and ϕ, compares to corresponding rectangular coordinates x, y, and z. You should be able to solve problems set up in terms of spherical coordinates — using spherical coordinates. That’s what this chapter is all about.

162 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions z r x φ y Figure 7-1: The spherical coordinate system. Taking It to Three Dimensions with Spherical Coordinates To work in spherical coordinates, you need to get a form of the Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates. The Schrödinger equation is the basic formula of quantum physics because it lets you solve for the wave functions of particles, and from there you can get all you want — probabilities, expectation values of observables like angular momentum, and so on. In general, the Schrödinger equation looks like this in spherical coordinates: where r is the radius vector and is the Laplacian operator. In spherical coordinates, the Laplacian looks like this:

163Chapter 7: Going Circular in Three Dimensions: Spherical Coordinates where L2 is the square of the orbital angular momentum: All this means that in spherical coordinates, the Schrödinger equation for a central potential looks like this when you substitute in terms: Note that this is the sum of the radial kinetic energy, the angular kinetic energy, and the potential energy. To dig into the details, expand r in terms of the r, θ, and ϕ coordinates: ψ(r) = ψ(r, θ, ϕ) For spherically symmetric potentials, you can break the wave function into two parts — a radial part and a part that depends on the angles — like this: ψ(r, θ, ϕ) = Rnl(r) Ylm(θ, ϕ) In this wave function, here’s what the variables mean: ✓ Rnl(r) is the radial part. ✓ Ylm(θ, ϕ) is the angular part (known as a spherical harmonic). ✓ The n is called the principal quantum number (usually associated with energy levels). ✓ The l is the total angular momentum quantum number. ✓ The m is the angular momentum quantum number in the z direction. Teihgeensfpuhnecrtiicoanlshlaoromkolinkiec?s,TYhlme(fθo,llϕo)w, ainreg the eigenfunctions of the L2 operator. What do those example helps you see how to solve this problem. Q. What do the functions Ylm(θ, ϕ) look like? , where A. , where Pl(x) is called a Legendre polynomial and is given by iRceaml heamrmbeorn:iScoslivsiningvfaolruaYblml(eθw, ϕh)einsny’otue’arseyf,insdoinfoglltohwe along. Knowing how to deal with spher- wave functions of particles in spherical coordinates, because they’re the eigenfunctions of the L2 operator.

164 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions First divide Ylm(θ, ϕ) into a function, Θlm(θ), and an exponential part to get the following: Then apply the L2 operator to Ylm(θ, ϕ). Doing so makes Ylm(θ, ϕ) eigenfunctions of the L2 operator. Here’s what you get: Because you’re creating Ylm(θ, ϕ) to be an eigenfunction of the L2 operator, you have this: Therefore, the previous equation for L2Ylm(θ, ϕ) becomes Cancel terms and subtract the right-hand side from the left, which gives you this differential equation: Divide by eimϕ to get the following: This is a well-known differential equation known as a Legendre differential equation. (Check out Differential Equations For Dummies [Wiley] for more information.) The solutions are well known and take the form: where Plm(cos θ) is the Lengendre function: where Pl(x) is called a Legendre polynomial and is given by That gives you Θlm(θ) up to a constant, Clm. And because you also know what Ylm(θ, ϕ) is — up to a multiplicative constant.

165Chapter 7: Going Circular in Three Dimensions: Spherical Coordinates To find the multiplicative constant, you have to normalize Ylm(θ, ϕ); therefore, the following equa- tion must be true: Substitute the following equations into the integral: • • • The substitution gives you Doing the integral over ϕ gives you 2π, so this becomes You can do the integral to get m ≥ 0 Solve for Clm: Clm = (–1)m So plug the value of Clm into the equation Θlm(θ) = ClmPlm(cos θ): And because Ylm(θ, ϕ) = Θlm(θ)Φm(ϕ), you plug in the values of Θlm(θ) and Φm(ϕ) to get , where Pl(x) is a Legendre polynomial and is given by where

166 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions1 . The solution to the Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates with a spherical potential isψ(r, θ, ϕ) =nuRmnl(br)erY, lman(θd, mϕ),iswthheereanYglmu(lθa,r ϕ) is a spherical harmonic, l is the total angular momentumquantum momentum quantum number in the z direction. FindY00(θ, ϕ), Y10(θ, ϕ) , Y1±1(θ, ϕ), Y20(θ, ϕ), Y2±1(θ, ϕ), and Y2±2(θ, ϕ).Solve It 2. The wave function looks like this in spherical coordinates: ψ(r, θ, ϕ) = Rnl(r) Ylm(θ, ϕ) And the Schrödinger equation looks like this: You’ve already substituted the wave function into the Schrödinger equation and solved forYfgoelmrt (Rtθhn,le(ϕr)S)..cN(hNoröowdtesin:ugYbeosrtuietcuqatuena’ttthioseonwlvfoaervfetohrfeuRnrnacl(dtri)ioanyl epitna,trboteotchfaetuhSsecehwyroaövudeidnfougnne’rct tekioqnnuo.aw)titohneafnodrmgeotf an equation V(r), but you canSolve It

167Chapter 7: Going Circular in Three Dimensions: Spherical CoordinatesDealing Freely with Free Particlesin Spherical CoordinatesIn quantum physics, you also encounter free particles in spherical coordinates. Free par-ticles are particles with no force on them, so in spherical coordinates, you have to take spe-cial care to get things right. What does the wave function look like for a free particle in 3-Dspherical coordinates? You know the wave function has this form in general:ψ(r, θ, ϕ) = Rnl(r) Ylm(θ, ϕ)Afonrd ayforeuekpnaorwticYlelm?(θT,hϕe) is the angular part. But what draodeisalthpearrtaodfiatlhpeawrta,vRenlf(urn),cltoioonk likelike this: Schrödinger equation for the looksFor a free particle, V(r) = 0, so the radial equation becomesPeople handle this equation by making the substitution ρ = kr, where , sothat Rnl(r) becomes Rl(kr) = Rl(ρ). This substitution means that you get The good news: A well-known solution for this equation is a combination of two functions, the spherical Bessel functions, jl(ρ), and the spherical Neumann functions, nl(ρ): Rl(ρ) = Al jl(ρ) + Blnl(ρ) So the solution is a combination of Bessel and Neumann functions. Here’s what the Bessel and Neumann functions equal: ✓ Spherical Bessel functions: ✓ Spherical Neumann functions: You can make the solutions easier to handle if you take a look at the spherical Bessel func- tions and Neumann functions for small and large ρ. The following example gives you a clearer picture.

168 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three DimensionsQ . What do the spherical Bessel functions Put in small ρ for the Bessel functions to get the following: and Neumann functions look like for small and large ρ? Do the same for the Neumann function.A . For small ρ, the Bessel functions For small ρ, the Neumann function reduce to becomes And for small ρ, the Neumann functions reduce to Insert the large ρ in the Bessel functions For large ρ, the Bessel functions to get reduce to For large ρ, the Neumann functions For large ρ, the Neumann functions become reduce to The Neumann functions diverge for small ρ, and that means that any wave function that includes the Neumann functions Start with the spherical Bessel functions: would also diverge, which is unphysical. Therefore, the Neumann functions are not acceptable functions in the wave function for small ρ. So that means the And start with the spherical Neumann wave function ψ(r, θ, ϕ), which equals functions: Rnl(r) Ylm(θ, ϕ), equals this for small ρ: ψ(r, θ, ϕ) = jl(kr) Ylm(θ, ϕ) where . And you can approximate this as

169Chapter 7: Going Circular in Three Dimensions: Spherical Coordinates3 . The spherical Bessel functions are given by 4. The spherical Neumann functions are given by Find j0(ρ), j1(ρ), and j2(ρ). Solve It Find n0(ρ), n1(ρ), and n2(ρ). Solve It

170 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions Getting the Goods on Spherical Potential Wells This section takes a look at particles trapped in spherical potential wells. That is, you look at cases where a particle doesn’t have enough energy to escape entrapment by a spheri- cally symmetric well. Suppose you have a spherical potential well like this: This potential is spherically symmetric, and it varies only in r, not in θ or ϕ. That means that the spherical harmonics apply, and you need to solve only for the radial part of the wave func- tion. Check out the following example and the practice problems. Q. What is the radial part of the wave function for a particle trapped in a spherical potential well (up to arbitrary normalization constants)? A. Rspl(hρe)r=icAalljlB(ρe)ss+eBl lfnuln(ρc)t.ioTnhsat(jils(ρ, )t)haenrdadthiael part of the wave function is a combination of the spherical Neumann functions (nl(ρ)). The radial equation looks like the following for the region 0 < r < a: In this region, V(r) = –V0, so you have Take the V0 term over to the right side of the equation. Here’s what you get: Divide by r, which gives you . You get Multiply by

171Chapter 7: Going Circular in Three Dimensions: Spherical Coordinates Now change the variable so that ρ = kr, where , so that Rnl(r) becomes Rl(kr) = Rl(ρ). You get the following: This is the spherical Bessel equation, just as you see for the free particle (see the preceding section, “Dealing Freely with Free Particles in Spherical Coordinates”) — but this time, , not . The solution is a combination of the spherical Bessel functions, jl(ρ), and the spherical Neumann functions, nl(ρ): Rl(ρ) = Al jl(ρ) + Blnl(ρ)5 . Using the case where ρ is small, show that 6 . What’s the wave function look like for r > a? B must equal 0 in the radial part of the Use boundary conditions (continuity of the wave function solution for 0 < r < a wave function and its first derivative) to set Rl(ρ) = Al jl(ρ) + Blnl(ρ) up equations to find the wave function’s giving you this wave function: normalization constants; don’t attempt to ψinside(r, θ, ϕ) = Al jl(ρinside) Ylm(θ, ϕ) find the normalization constants unless you have a lot of time on your hands! Solve It Solve It

172 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions Bouncing Around with Isotropic Harmonic Oscillators A 3-D isotropic harmonic oscillator is one whose potential is spherically symmetric. This section takes a look at finding the wave functions for isotropic harmonic oscillators. In one dimension, the harmonic oscillator potential is written like this:where and k is the spring constant (the restoring force of the harmonic oscillatoris F = –kx).You can convert this into three-dimensional versions of the harmonic potential by replacingx, the displacement in one dimension, with r, the length of the radial vector in the sphericalcoordinate system:where .So what does the Schrödinger equation, which gives you the wave functions and the energylevels, look like — and what are the known solutions to it? Check out the following example. Q. Find the Schrödinger equation for an isotropic harmonic oscillator, and list the solutions for the radial part of the wave functions. A. , where exp(x) = ex and and the Lab(r) functions are the generalized Laguerre polynomials: Start with the Schrödinger equation in three dimensions: Here, V(r) looks like

173Chapter 7: Going Circular in Three Dimensions: Spherical Coordinates where . Substitute the value of V(r) into the Schrödinger equation, which gives you Because this potential is spherically symmetric, the wave function is going to be of the form ψ(r, θ, ϕ) = Rnl(r) Ylm(θ, ϕ) where you have yet to solve for the radial function, Rnl(r), and Ylm(θ, ϕ) represents the spherical harmonics. The solution to this Schrödinger equation is well known, and heenreergityilse,vwehl)e, raenRdnll(irs) is the radial part of the wave function, n is the principal quantum number (the the total angular momentum quantum number: where exp(x) = ex and and the Lab(r) functions are the generalized Laguerre polynomials:

174 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions 7. The radial part of the wave function for iso- 8 . oψFif1n1m±d1a(trsh,seθm,fuϕil)nl, eaaxnnpdirseψos2ts0o0i(oprni,csθh,foϕar)rmψfo1or1n0a(ircp, aθr, tϕic),le tropic harmonic oscillators relies on the oscillator. generalized Laguerre polynomials: Solve It Find L0b(r), L1b(r), L2b(r), and L3b(r). Solve It

175Chapter 7: Going Circular in Three Dimensions: Spherical Coordinates Answers to Problems on 3-D Spherical Coordinates The following are the answers to the practice questions that I present earlier in this chapter. Here you see the original questions, the answers in bold, and step-by-step answer explanations. a The solution to the Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates with a spherical potential is ψ(r, θ, ϕ) =nuRmnl(br)erY,lma(nθd, ϕm),iswthheereanYglmu(lθa,r ϕ) is a spherical harmonic, l is the total angular momentum quantum momentum quantum number in the z direction. Find Y00(θ, ϕ), Y10(θ, ϕ) , Y1±1(θ, ϕ), Y20(θ, ϕ), Y2±1(θ, ϕ) and Y2±2(θ, ϕ). Here are the answers: ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Here’s what Ylm(θ, ϕ) equals: where , where Pl(x) is a Legendre polynomial and is given by . First, find the Legendre polynomials for l = 0, l = 1, and l = 2: ✓ P0(x) = 1 ✓ P1(x) = x ✓ Then find the needed Legendre functions by plugging in the answers for the Legendre polynomials and using m = 0, m = 1, and m = 2: ✓ P10(x) = x ✓ ✓ P11(x) = (1 – x )2 ⁄1 2 ✓ P21(x) = 3x(1 – x )2 ⁄1 2 ✓ P22(x) = 3(1 – x )2 ⁄1 2

176 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions Then use the Legendre functions and the Ylm(θ, ϕ) equation to get the spherical harmonics: ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ b The wave function looks like this in spherical coordinates: ψ(r, θ, ϕ) = Rnl(r) Ylm(θ, ϕ) And the Schrödinger equation looks like this: You’ve already sthubeswtiatvuetefdunthcetiownavinetofutnhcetiSocnhirnötdointhgeerSecqhuröadtiionngearnedqgueattaionneaqnudatsioolnvefodrfRonrl(Yr)lm. (Tθh, eϕ). Now substitute answer is The Schrödinger equation looks like this: And the wave function looks like this in general: ψ(r, θ, ϕ) = Rnl(r) Ylm(θ, ϕ) Put the wave function into the Schrödinger equation, which gives you the following: The spherical harmonics are eigenfunctions of L2 with eigenvalue , so Therefore, the last term in the Schrödinger equation is simply . That means that you get

177Chapter 7: Going Circular in Three Dimensions: Spherical Coordinates Rewrite this as This is the equation you use to determine the radial part of the wave function, Rnl(r). c The spherical Bessel functions are given by Find j0(ρ), j1(ρ), and j2(ρ). Here are the answers: ✓ ✓ ✓ The spherical Bessel functions are given by Simply find l = 0, l = 1, and l = 2. d The spherical Neumann functions are given by Find n0(ρ), n1(ρ), and n2(ρ). The answers are ✓ ✓ ✓ The spherical Neumann functions are given by To get the answers, solve the equations for l = 0, l = 1, and l = 2.

178 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensionse Using the case where ρ is small, show that B must equal 0 in the radial part of the wave func- tion solution for 0 < r < a Rl(ρ) = Al jl(ρ) + Blnl(ρ) giving you this wave function: ψinside(r, θ, ϕ) = Al jl(ρinside) Ylm(θ, ϕ) The answer itshψe isnpsidhee(rr,icθa, lφh) a=rAmlojln(ρicinssi.de) Ylm(θ, φ), and Ylm(θ, φ) are You can apply the same constraint here that you use for a free particle — that the wave func- tion must be finite everywhere. For small ρ, the Bessel functions look like this: And for small ρ, the Neumann functions reduce to So the Neumann functions diverge for small ρ, which makes them unacceptable for wave func- tions here. That means that the radial part of the wave function is just made up of spherical Bessel functions, where Al is a constant: Rl(ρ) = Al jl(ρ) The whole wave function inside the square well, ψinside(r, θ, ϕ), is a product of radial and angular parts, and it looks like this: ψinside(r, θ, ϕ) = Al jl(ρinside) Ylm(θ, ϕ) where and Ylm(θ, ϕ) are the spherical harmonics.f What’s the wave function look like for r > a? Use boundary conditions (continuity of the wave function and its first derivative) to set up equations to find the wave function’s normalization constants. The answers are ✓ ψoutside(r, θ, φ) = Bl( jl(ρoutside) + nl(ρoutside )) Ylm(θ, φ) ✓ ψinside(a, θ, φ) = ψoutside(a, θ, φ) ✓ Outside the spherical well, in the region r > a, the particle is just like a free particle, so here’s what the radial equation looks like:

179Chapter 7: Going Circular in Three Dimensions: Spherical Coordinates You solve this equation earlier in the chapter (see the section “Dealing Freely with Free Particles in Spherical Coordinates”) — you make the change of variable ρ = kr, where , so that Rnl(r) becomes Rl(kr) = Rl(ρ). Using this substitution, you get And the solution is a combination of spherical Bessel functions and spherical Neumann functions: Rl(ρ) = Bl(jl(ρ) + nl(ρ)) where Bl is a constant. The radial solution outside the bounds of the square well looks like this, where : ψoutside(r, θ, ϕ) = Bl(jl(ρoutside) + nl(ρoutside)) Ylm(θ, ϕ) You know that the wave function inside the bounds of the square well is ψinside(r, θ, ϕ) = Al jl(ρinside) Ylm(θ, ϕ) YwoauvefifnudncAtliaonndanBdl tihtrsofuirgsht continuity constraints. At the inside/outside boundary, where r = a, the these two equations: derivative must be continuous. So to determine Al and Bl, you have to solve ✓ ψinside(a, θ, ϕ) = ψoutside(a, θ, ϕ) ✓ g The radial part of the wave function for isotropic harmonic oscillators relies on the generalized Laguerre polynomials: Find L0b(r), L1b(r), L2b(r), and L3b(r). The answers are ✓ L0b(r) = 1 ✓ L1b(r) = –r + b + 1 ✓ ✓ The generalized Laguerre polynomials are given by Find a = 0, 1, 2, and 3 to get the answers.

180 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions h Find the full expressions for ψ110(r, θ, ϕ), ψ11±1(r, θ, ϕ), and ψ200(r, θ, ϕ) for a particle of mass m in an isotopic harmonic oscillator. Here are the answers: ✓ ✓ ✓ The general form for the wave function is ψnlm(r, θ, ϕ) = Rnl(r) Ylm(θ, ϕ) For an isotropic harmonic oscillator, the radial part of the wave function looks like this: where exp(x) = ex and and the Lab(r) functions are the generalized Laguerre polynomials: Substitute the radial part into the wave function, which gives you the following: ✓ ✓ ✓ And here are the spherical harmonics you need: ✓ ✓ Y10(θ, ϕ) = (3⁄4π)1/2 cos θ ✓

181Chapter 7: Going Circular in Three Dimensions: Spherical Coordinates Putting the spherical harmonics into the wave function finally gives you ✓ ✓ ✓

182 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions

Chapter 8 Getting to Know Hydrogen AtomsIn This Chapter▶ Understanding the Schrödinger equation for hydrogen▶ Using center-of-mass coordinates▶ Breaking up hydrogen’s Schrödinger equation into solvable parts▶ Working with hydrogen’s radial wave functions▶ Finding energy levels and energy degeneracy The hydrogen atom is one of the successes of quantum physics. When you get to multi- electron atoms, the situation becomes much harder to handle because all the electrons can interact with each other as well as with the nucleus. But the hydrogen atom presents you with a relatively simple case that you can make a lot of progress with, solving for wave functions and energy levels. This chapter considers problems on the hydrogen atom, the most basic of all the atoms, with only an electron and a proton. Here you see how to create the Schrödinger equation for the hydrogen atom, solve it for the wave functions, and determine the energy levels.Eyeing How the Schrödinger EquationAppears for Hydrogen In a hydrogen atom, an electron circles a proton, and the whole thing is held together by electric forces. Figure 8-1 shows a hydrogen atom. To get anywhere with the hydrogen atom system in quantum physics, you have to construct the Schrödinger equation, which you can then solve to get the wave functions. When dealing with hydrogen atom systems, the Schrödinger equation looks like this: The following example shows you how different energy levels can alter the Schrödinger equation, and the practice problems allow you to work with the electron’s kinetic energy and the atom’s potential energy.

184 Part III: Quantum Mechanics in Three Dimensions Electron re Proton rp Figure 8-1: The hydro- gen atom. Q. What does the kinetic energy of the proton look like in the Schrödinger equation? A. , where . Start with the Schrödinger equation: Now just separate out the term that has to do with the kinetic energy of the proton — the first term: , where Here, xp is the proton’s x position, yp is the proton’s y position, and so on.

1. What does the electron’s kinetic energy 185Chapter 8: Getting to Know Hydrogen Atoms term look like in the hydrogen atom’s 2 . What does the potential energy term look Schrödinger equation? like in the hydrogen atom’s Schrödinger Solve It equation? Solve It

186 Part III: Quantum Mechanics in Three DimensionsSwitching to Center-of-Mass Coordinates toMake the Hydrogen Atom SolvableSolving the hydrogen Schrödinger equation from the preceding section isn’t easy becausepitrcootonntawinasstsetramtisolnikaery|arne d– rthp|a.tSropl=vi0n,gwithwicohuwldoubledagliovte easier if you could assume that the you However, that equation is inaccurate because the proton isn’t stationary. It rotates around the electron just as the electron rotates around it. How can you convert the full Schrödinger equation into something manageable like this with- out sacrificing accuracy? You can use center-of-mass coordinates. Center-of-mass coordinates have the center of mass at the origin, and these coordinates are a good choice when you have two moving particles. Q. Relate the Laplacian operators for the iSsc ghoröindgintgoemr aekqeuathtiaotneiqnusatetiaodnoefarseiearndtorp solve. electron’s position, , and the proton’s position, , to the same operators usingcenter-of-mass coordinates, and ,where The Laplacian for R in an x, y, z coordi- nate system is And the Laplacian for r is and the vector between the electron and proton is r = re – rp. Rewrite and in terms of and . A. , where Doing so gives you M = me + mp is the total mass and The center of mass of the proton/elec- tron system is at the following location: where M = me + mp is the total mass and is called the reduced mass, And the vector between the electron and which is the effective mass of the elec-proton is r = re – rp. Using R and r in the tron-proton system.

187Chapter 8: Getting to Know Hydrogen Atoms3 . What is the Schrödinger equation in terms of and ? Solve It 4. Separate the Schrödinger equation and r = re – rp. (Hint: Use the into two equations, one for r and one for R, where substitution ψ(R, r) = ψ(R)ψ(r)). Solve It

188 Part III: Quantum Mechanics in Three Dimensions Doing the Splits: Solving the Dual Schrödinger Equation When you encounter a complicated Schrödinger equation, splitting it up is the best way to handle it. You can divide the Schrödinger equation for the hydrogen atom into two equa- tions, so you can split it: Similarly, you get this for ψ(r):where r = re – rp is the vector between the electron and proton.In this way, you have two equations: one for the center of mass and one for the vectorbetween the electron and proton.Now you get to solve this dual equation. The example starts with the equation for ψ(R). Q. Solve the following Schrödinger equation Optionally, you can find C by insisting that ψ(R) be normalized, as all wave for ψ(R): functions must, which means that . Plug C into In other words, A. ψ(R) = Ce–ik·r to get the final answer: The solution to this differential Schrödinger equation is ψ(R) = Ce–ik·r where C is a constant and k is the wave vector, where .

189Chapter 8: Getting to Know Hydrogen Atoms 5. The Schrödinger equation for ψ(r) is ownhesrpehrer=icrael–corop.rYdoinuatceasnfobrremakorteheonsotlhuitsiopnr,oψce(rs)s,)i:nto a radial and an angular part (see Chapter 7 ψ(r) = Rnl(r) Ylm(θ, ϕ) The angular part of ψ(r) is made up of spherical harmonics, Ylm(θ, ϕ) (refer to Chapter 7). Now you have to solve for the radial part, Rnl(r). Here’s what the Schrödinger equation becomes for the radial part: . Solve this equation for small r up to an arbitrary constant. where Solve It 6. The radial Schrödinger equation becomes the following for the radial part of ψ(r): . Solve this equation for large R up to an arbitrary constant. where r = re – rp and Solve It

190 Part III: Quantum Mechanics in Three DimensionsSolving the Radial Schrödinger Equationfor ψ(r) After you divide the Schrödinger equation into radial and angular parts (see the preceding section), you need to know how to solve for the radial part of the Schrödinger equation for afohr ytdhreocgaelncualtaotmio,nRs)n.l(Pr)u≈ttiAnrgl for small r and Rgnivl(er)s ≈ Ae–λr for large r (see problems 5 and 6 equation: these together you the solution to the radial Schrödinger Rnl(r) = r lf(r)e–λr where f(r) is some as-yet undetermined function of r. You can determine f(r) by substituting this feoqrumatfioornR: nl(r) into the radial Schrödinger equation and seeing what form for f(r) solves that Plugging in the value of Rnl(r) gives you The usual way to solve this is to use a series expansion for f(r) like this, where k is the series index value and ak represents coefficients: The following example looks into solving for Rnl(r). Q. The radial part of the wave function ψ(r) looks like Rnl(r) = r lf(r)e–λr. Use this form for f(r): which gives you the following form of the Schrödinger equation: Given that ψnlm(r, θ, ϕ) = Rnl(r) Ylm(θ, ϕ), solve for ψ100(r, θ, ϕ). A. , where .

191Chapter 8: Getting to Know Hydrogen Atoms Substitute R10(r) into the Schrödinger equation, which gives you the following: Change the index of the second term from k to k – 1: Because each term in this series has to be zero to have each power of r be zero (because the whole series equals zero), you get the following: Divide by rk–2, which gives you : Now take a look at the ratio of This resembles the expansion for e2x, which is Therefore, you may suspect that f(r) is an exponential. The radial wave function, Rnl(r), looks like this: Rnl(r) = r lf(r)e–λr where . Trying a form of f(r) like f(r) = e2λr gives you the following: Rnl(r) = r le2λre–λr which equals Rnl(r) = r leλr This solution has a problem: It goes to infinity as r goes to infinity. So now try a solution for f(r) that looks like this (note that the summation is now to N, not ∞):

192 Part III: Quantum Mechanics in Three Dimensions For this series to terminate, aN+1, aN+2, aN+3, and so on must all be zero. Here’s the recurrence relation for the coefficients ak: For aN+1 to be zero, the factor multiplying ak–1 must be zero for k = N + 1, which means that Substitute in k = N + 1, which gives you the following: Divide by 2 to get Substitute N + l + 1 → n, where n is the principal quantum number. Doing so gives you This is the quantization condition that must be met. So here’s the form you have for Rnl(r): You find Anl by normalizing Rnl(r). You normalize R10(r) like this: which gives you where . You know that ψnlm(r, θ, ϕ) equals ψnlm(r, θ, ϕ) = Rnl(r) Ylm(θ, ψ) So ψ100(r, θ, ϕ) becomes the following:

193Chapter 8: Getting to Know Hydrogen Atoms7 . Given that the hydrogen atom wave functions look like this: and where Ln–l–12l+1 (2r/(nr0)) is a generalized Laguerre polynomial: where• L0b(r) = 1• L1b(r) = –r + b + 1• • find ψ200(r, θ, ϕ). Solve It

194 Part III: Quantum Mechanics in Three Dimensions 8 . Given that the hydrogen atom wave functions look like this: and where is a generalized Laguerre polynomial: where• L0b(r) = 1• L1b(r) = –r + b + 1• • find ψ300(r, θ, ϕ). Solve It

195Chapter 8: Getting to Know Hydrogen AtomsJuicing Up the Hydrogen Energy Levels You can figure out the hydrogen energy levels using the wave functions. To make sure that ψ(r) stays finite for the hydrogen atom, you need to havewhere .This quantization condition (which I show you how to find in the example problem in thepreceding section) actually constrains the possible values of energy that the hydrogensystem can take. The following example and practice problems let you solve for thoseenergy levels. Q. Find a quantization condition in a single Substitute λ into the first equation, which gives you the following: equation for the energy levels of hydrogen. Therefore A. The quantization condition for ψ(r) to remain finite as r → ∞ is where .

196 Part III: Quantum Mechanics in Three Dimensions9 . Solve for the energy levels of hydrogen in 1 0. Find the first three energy levels of hydro- terms of the quantization number n. gen numerically. Solve It Solve It

197Chapter 8: Getting to Know Hydrogen AtomsDoubling Up on Energy Level Degeneracy You can have energy degeneracy — that is, various states with the same energy — if you take into account m, the z component of the angular momentum. The energy of the hydro- gen atom is dependent only on n, the principal quantum number:That means the E is independent of l and m, the z component of the angular momentum.How many states, , have the same energy for a particular value of n? That’s called theangular momentum degeneracy of hydrogen. The example problem calculates how degener-ate each n level in hydrogen is. (For details on angular momentum, flip to Chapter 5.) Q. Find the angular momentum degeneracy For a particular value of l, you can have m values of –l, –l + 1, ..., 0, ..., l – 1, l. So you of the hydrogen atom in terms of n. can enter in (2l + 1) for the degeneracy in m: A. For a specific value of n, l can range from zero to n – 1. And each l can have differ-ent values of m (from –l to +l), so thetotal degeneracy is This series is just n2: So the angular momentum degeneracy of the energy levels of the hydrogen atom is n2.

198 Part III: Quantum Mechanics in Three Dimensions1 1. Verify that the angular momentum degen- 12. Find the degeneracy of the hydrogen atom eracy of the n = 1 and n = 2 states is n2. when you consider spin in addition to angu- lar momentum. (See Chapter 5 for info on Solve It spin.) Solve It

199Chapter 8: Getting to Know Hydrogen AtomsAnswers to Problems on Hydrogen AtomsHere are the answers to the practice questions I present earlier in this chapter, along withthe original questions and answer explanations.a What does the electron’s kinetic energy term look like in the hydrogen atom’s Schrödinger equation? The answer is , where . The Schrödinger equation includes a term for the electron’s kinetic energy: where . Here, xe is the electron’s x position, ye is the electron’s y position, and so on.b What does the potential energy term look like in the hydrogen atom’s Schrödinger equation? Here’s the answer: The potential energy, V(r), is the third term in the Schrödinger equation: wcehnetrrealψp(orte,enrpt)iailsitshgeiveelencbtryon and proton’s wave function. The electrostatic potential energy for a where r is the radius vector separating the two charges. As is common in quantum mechanics, use CGS (centimeter-gram-second) units, where Therefore, the potential due to the electron and proton charges in the hydrogen atom is Because r = re – rp, this becomes

200 Part III: Quantum Mechanics in Three Dimensionsc What is the Schrödinger equation in terms of and ? The answer is where , r = re – rp, M = me + mp, and . The example problem relates and to and this way: where M = me + mp is the total mass and is the reduced mass. Substitute this into the Schrödinger equation, which gives you And because , you get the following for the Schrödinger equation: You know that r = re – rp, so write the potential as Therefore, the Schrödinger equation becomesd Separate the Schrödinger equation into two equations, one for r and one for R, where and r = re – rp. The answers are ✓ ✓ , where • • r = re – rp • M = me + mp •

201Chapter 8: Getting to Know Hydrogen Atoms The Schrödinger equation looks like this: Because it contains terms involving either R or r but not both, it’s a separable differential equation, which means there’s a solution of the following form: ψ(R, r) = ψ(R)ψ(r) Substitute ψ(R, r) = ψ(R)ψ(r) into the Schrödinger equation, giving you Divide by ψ(R)ψ(r) to get The terms here depend on either ψ(R) and ψ(r) but not both. So you can separate Schrödinger equa- tion into two equations, the first of which looks like this: and the second of which looks like this: where the total energy, E, equals ER + Er. Multiply the first equation by ψ(R), which gives you Then multiply the second equation by ψ(r), which gives you Now you have two Schrödinger equations, one for r and one for R.e The Schrödinger equation for ψ(r) is where r = re – rp. You can break the solution, ψ(r), into a radial and an angular part: ψ(r) = Rnl(r) Ylm(θ, ϕ)

202 Part III: Quantum Mechanics in Three Dimensions Tfohrethaengrualdairalppaartrto, fRψnl((rr)).isThmeaSdcehurpödoifnsgpehr eerqicuaaltihoanrmbeocnoicmse, sYtlmh(iθs,fϕo)r. Now you have to solve the radial part: where . Solve this equation for small r up to an arbitrary constant. The answer is Rnl(r) ≈ Arl for small r. For small r, the radial wave function must vanish, so you have Multiply by : The solution to this differential equation ltoooiknsfilnikitey.RTnlh(ra)t≈mAeraln+sBtrh–al–t1.BNmoutestthbaet 0R,nsl(or)ymouust vanish as r → 0 — but the r –l–1 term goes have this solution for small r: Rnl(r) ≈ Ar lf The radial Schrödinger equation becomes the following for the radial part of ψ(r): where r = re – rp and . Solve this equation for large r up to an arbitrary constant. The answer is Rnl(r) ≈ Ae–λr for large r. For very large r, the Schrödinger equation becomes the following (to see this, just let r get very big in the Schrödinger equation given in the statement of this problem): The electron is in a bound state in the hydrogen atom, so E < 0, and the solution is proportional to Rnl(r) ~ Ae–λr + Beλr where . Note that this diverges as r → ∞ because of the Beλr term, so B must be equal to 0. That means that Rnl(r) ≈ Ae–λr.g Given that the hydrogen atom wave functions look like this:

203Chapter 8: Getting to Know Hydrogen Atoms where and where Ln–l–12l+1 (2r/(nr0)) is a generalized Laguerre polynomial: ✓ L0b(r) = 1 ✓ L1b(r) = –r + b + 1 ✓ ✓ find ψ200(r, θ, ϕ). The answer is where . Here’s what the wave function ψnlm(r, θ, ϕ) looks like for hydrogen: where is a generalized Laguerre polynomial. Here are the first few generalized Laguerre polynomials: ✓ L0b(r) = 1 ✓ L1b(r) = –r + b + 1 ✓ ✓ Substitute this into the wave equation, which gives you ψ200(r, θ, ϕ):h Given that the hydrogen atom wave functions look like this:

204 Part III: Quantum Mechanics in Three Dimensions where and where is a generalized Laguerre polynomial: ✓ L0b(r) = 1 ✓ L1b(r) = –r + b + 1 ✓ ✓ find ψ300(r, θ, ϕ). The answer is where . Here’s what the wave function ψnlm(r, θ, ϕ) looks like for hydrogen: where is a generalized Laguerre polynomial. Here are the first few Laguerre polynomials: ✓ L0b(r) = 1 ✓ L1b(r) = –r + b + 1 ✓ ✓ Substitute into the wave function to get ψ300(r, θ, ϕ):i Solve for the energy levels of hydrogen in terms of the quantization number n. The answer is where . Start with the quantization condition found in the sample problem:

205Chapter 8: Getting to Know Hydrogen Atoms Square both sides of this equation to get Divide both sides by m and multiply by : Solve for the energy E, which gives you the following: Rename E as En because it depends on the principle quantum number n: This result is sometimes written in terms of the Bohr radius — the orbital radius that Niels Bohr cal- culated for the electron in a hydrogen atom, r0. The Bohr radius is In terms of r0, En equals j Find the first three energy levels of hydrogen numerically. The answer is E = –13.6 eV when n = 1, E = –3.4 eV when n = 2, and E = –1.5 eV when n = 3. The energy levels of hydrogen are Find the ground state (where n = 1), the first excited state (n = 2), and the second excited state (n = 3). This energy is negative because the electron is in a bound state. k Verify that the angular momentum degeneracy of the n = 1 and n = 2 states is n2. For n = 1, degener- acy is 1; for n = 2, degeneracy = 4. For the ground state, n = 1, the degeneracy is one because l and therefore m can only equal zero for this state. For n = 2, you have these states therefore a degeneracy of four: ✓ ψ200(r, θ, ϕ) ✓ ψ21–1(r, θ, ϕ) ✓ ψ210(r, θ, ϕ) ✓ ψ211(r, θ, ϕ)

206 Part III: Quantum Mechanics in Three Dimensions l Find the degeneracy of the hydrogen atom when you consider spin in addition to angular momentum. The answer is The spin of the electron provides additional quantum states. When you add spin into the wave function, it becomes This wave function can take two different forms, depending on ms, like this: ✓ ✓ If you include the spin of the electron, there are two spin states for every state , so the degeneracy becomes the following: which equals 2n2.

Chapter 9 Corralling Many Particles TogetherIn This Chapter▶ Understanding multiple-particle systems▶ Working with identical and distinguishable particles▶ Understanding fermions, bosons, and wave function symmetry Creating wave functions for hydrogen atoms isn’t necessarily easy (as I discuss in Chapter 8), so you can imagine how difficult it is to handle many particles at once — each of which can interact with the others. This chapter focuses on systems of many identical particles and on systems of distinguish- able but independent particles. Using identical particles makes solving problems easier because you don’t have to keep track of which particle is which in terms of mass, spin, or other measurements. But even so, there’s only so much you can do to find the wave function and energy levels of multiple identical particles, particularly if they interact with each other. The problem is the interaction among the particles: When you have 15 charged particles, for example, you have to know the position of each one to know the resulting electric forces on every other particle. The distance between particles appears in the denominator of all the terms in the Hamiltonian because the electric potential is proportional to one over the dis- tance. So solving such differential equations as a multi-particle Hamiltonian is nearly impos- sible. However, you can still say a surprising amount about multi-particle systems if you make a few approximations. This chapter helps you get a firmer grasp on how they work.The 4-1-1 on Many-Particle Systems A many-particle system is just that: a system of numerous particles. They could be in gas- eous form, for example, and a wave function would have to keep track of the position of each particle. In this section, I start by taking a look at the wave function of a multi-particle system of identical particles. In a system with identical particles, you keep track of each particle by its position, so the wave function looks like this: ψ(r1, r2, r3, ...) The following example and practice problems show you what else you can determine from general systems of identical multiple particles.

208 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions Q. What is the normalization condition for a That’s the normalization condition. general multiple-particle wave function idψt3y(rr2t1,h, parat2,rprtai3c,rlt.e.i.c)3l,eias1nidinswdin3hrad3,t3rais1n, dtphaserotpiocrnole?b2abisil-in paTnahdretispcorleoob2naiibssiilgnitivyde3trnh2a,btpypatarhtreitciscleqleu31airsiesinoinfdtd3hr33re,2, wave function with the various positions A. equal to all the positions you want to and find particle 1 at, particle 2 at, and so on; therefore, it looks like this: As for any wave function, the normaliza- tion of ψ(r1, r2, r3, ...) demands that 1 . What does the Hamiltonian look like for a 2. What does the total energy look like for a general multiple-particle system? general multiple-particle system? Solve It Solve It

209Chapter 9: Corralling Many Particles TogetherZap! Working with Multiple-Electron SystemsOne type of multi-particle system is an atom with multiple electrons (there are other typesof multi-electron systems, such as clouds of electrons, but atoms are most commonly usedhere). The electrons are identical and interchangeable. Consider the multiple-electrontaertloeocnmtsr,ionbnuF, tirgi2nuirsgeeth9n-ee1r.caHol,oeyrredo,uinRgaiitvseetohtfhetehceotoostreadcl ionnnuadmteeboleefrctthorfeoennl,euaccntlerdousnso,sroa1snis.ZT.thhee coordinate of the first figure shows three elec- Figure 9-1: A multi- electron atom. Although finding the wave function for such a system is difficult, you can still say some things about this system, such as how much total energy it has based on the number of electrons. The following problems show you how to do so.Q . What is the total kinetic energy of the A. system in Figure 9-1, assuming that there The total kinetic energy of the electrons are Z electrons? and the nucleus is just the sum of the individual kinetic energies.

210 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions 3. What is the total potential energy of the 4 . What is the total energy of the system in system in Figure 9-1, assuming that there Figure 9-1, assuming that there are Z are Z electrons? electrons? Solve It Solve It

211Chapter 9: Corralling Many Particles TogetherThe Old Shell Game: Exchanging ParticlesOne of the most powerful tools you have when working with multi-particle systems is toexchange the particles, or switch them with each other. Particular systems work one waywhen you exchange two particles, and other systems work in a different way; some allowexchange, and some don’t, as this section shows. To see this in action, you can create anoperator that exchanges two particles in a multi-particle system.Consider the general wave function for N particles:ψ(r1, r2, ..., ri, ..., rj, ..., rN)Here’s how to create an exchange operator, Pij , that exchanges particles i and j. In otherwords Pijψ(r1, r2, ..., ri, ..., rj, ..., rN) = ψ(r1, r2, ..., rj, ..., ri, ..., rN)The following text takes a look at the exchange operator with an example and some practiceproblems. Q. How does Pij compare with Pji?A . Pij = Pji. Start with the definition of the exchange operator Pij: Pijψ(r1, r2, ..., ri, ..., rj, ..., rN) = ψ(r1, r2, ..., rj, ..., ri, ..., rN) Now write out the exchange operator for Pji: Pjiψ(r1, r2, ..., ri, ..., rj, ..., rN) = ψ(r1, r2, ..., rj, ..., ri, ..., rN) Note that applying Pji is the same as applying Pij: Pijψ(r1, r2, ..., ri,rj, ..., ri, ..., rN) = ψ(r1, r2, ..., ..., rj, ..., rN) = Pjiψ(r1, r2, ..., ri, ..., rj, ..., rN) Therefore, Pij = Pji.

212 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions5 . What is the result of applying Pij twice? 6 . Show that if Solve It newqohuteacrloePmC14miPsu12at.eco—nsthtaantti,st,htehnatPP1212aPn1d4 dPo14esdonot Solve It

213Chapter 9: Corralling Many Particles Together Examining Symmetric and Antisymmetric Wave Functions You can divide particles into those with symmetric and antisymmetric wave functions. Particles with symmetric wave functions are called bosons, and those with antisymmetric wave functions are called fermions, and they have quite different properties — especially in terms of sharing the same quantum numbers: Any number of bosons can have the same quantum numbers, but no two fermions may (that means no two fermions can occupy exactly the same state in a system). wsiTfihtoauirswadtsasieo,vcfneotsifro:uψnn(ctrta1iko, erns2,ias...al,onroiek, i.g.a.e,tnrwjf,uh.na..ct, triitNom)n, eaoanfnPesiijgt,oetnhbfeuennstcyhtmieompnoeostfrsiPicbijlo,eyreoaiungetcinsavynamhlumaevesetaroircne.e1Boeafcntadhue–s1feo.PlIlnioj2wo=tihn1eg, r ✓ Symmetric: Pijψ(r1, r2, ..., ri, ..., rj, ..., rN) = ψ(r1, r2, ..., ri, ..., rj, ..., rN) ✓ Antisymmetric: Pijψ(r1, r2, ..., ri, ..., rj, ..., rN) = –ψ(r1, r2, ..., ri, ..., rj, ..., rN) So there are two types of eigenfunctions of the exchange operator: symmetric and antisym- metric eigenfunctions. So how can you determine whether a wave function is symmetric or antisymmetric? The following example shows you how, and then I give you a few practice problems to experiment with. Q. Is this wave function symmetric, antisym- Apply P12: metric, or neither? 2. Check how this answer compares to the original wave function. A. Antisymmetric. Here’s how to check for You know that symmetry: 1. Apply the exchange operator to the Tψh(err1e, fro2r)ei,sPa1n2 tψis3(yrm1,mr2e)tr=ic–.ψ3(r1, r2), so wave function. The wave function is

214 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions7 . Is this wave function symmetric, anti 8. Is this wave function symmetric, anti symmetric, or neither? symmetric, or neither? ψ(r1, r2) = (r1 – r2)4 Solve It Solve It 9. Is this wave function symmetric, anti 10. Is this wave function symmetric, anti symmetric, or neither? symmetric, or neither? Solve It Solve It

215Chapter 9: Corralling Many Particles TogetherJumping into Systems of ManyDistinguishable Particles Some systems have many distinguishable particles. For example, each particle may have a different mass. Having a system of distinguishable particles means you can’t just exchange two particles and get the same system back, so exchange operators are used less frequently here. However, you can still say something about such systems. If the potential that each particle sees isn’t dependent on the other particles (such as when you have charged distinguishable particles in an electric field), then this kind of system is solvable, and the math isn’t too hard. Check out the following example and practice prob- lems for more insight. Q. What does the potential look like for a A . system of many independent distinguish- If the particles are independent, the able particles? potential for all particles is just the sum of the individual potentials each particle sees, which looks like this summation, assuming there are N particles.1 1. What is the Hamiltonian of a system of 12. What does the total wave function for a many independent distinguishable system of independent distinguishable particles? p articles look like in terms of the wave functions of each particle? Solve It Solve It

216 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions Trapped in Square Wells: Many Distinguishable Particles For a system of many distinguishable particles, you sometimes need to figure out what the bound states look like when the particles are trapped in a square well. Say you have four par- ticles, each with a different mass, in a square well. And say the potential of the square well looks like this for each of the four noninteracting particles: What do the wave functions and energy levels look like? The following example and practice problems help you make these determinations. Q . What does the Schrödinger equation look like for four distinguishable independent particles in a square well when you divide it into four separate equations? A. Here are the equations: • • • • The Schrödinger equation looks like this: Because each particle is independent, you can separate the Schrödinger equation into four one-particle equations, where i = 1, 2, 3, or 4.

217Chapter 9: Corralling Many Particles Together1 3. What does the wave function look like for 1 4. What are the energy levels of four distin- distinguishable particles in a square well? guishable particles in a square well? Solve It Solve It

218 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions Creating the Wave Functions of Symmetric and Antisymmetric Multi-Particle Systems When you have two, three, or more identical particles, their wave function must be sym- metric or antisymmetric — those are your only two choices; you can’t have a wave function that’s indeterminate with regard to symmetry. That means that only symmetric or antisym- metric wave functions are allowed. (For more on symmetry, see the earlier section titled “Examining Symmetric and Antisymmetric Wave Functions.”) Symmetric wave functions stay the same under particle exchange, and antisymmetric wave functions get a minus sign in front when you exchange two particles. Take a look at how this works. Q. What do the symmetric and antisymmetric wave functions of two free particles look like? A. Here are the answers: • • Here’s the symmetric wave function, made up of single-particle wave functions: Here’s the antisymmetric wave function, made up of the two single-particle wave functions; note that it changes sign under particle exchange: where ni stands for all the quantum numbers of the ith particle. Note that you can also write the symmetric wave function like this: where P is the permutation operator, which takes the permutation of its argument. Similarly, you can write the antisymmetric wave function like this: where the tpeerrmm(u–t1a)tPioinss1(fworheerveenyopueremxcuhtaatniogensr1(sw1 ahnedrer2yso2ubuext cnhoatnng1eabnodtnh2,r1osr1 ann1 danrd2s2na2 nbdutanlsoot nr11sa1nadndn2r)2sa2n).d –1 for odd In fact, ψa(r1s1, r2s2) is sometimes written in determinant form:

219Chapter 9: Corralling Many Particles Together 15. What do the symmetric and antisymmetric 1 6. What do the symmetric and antisymmetric wave functions of three free particles look wave functions of multiple free particles like? look like in general? Solve It Solve It

220 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions Answers to Problems on Multiple-Particle Systems Here are the answers to the practice questions I present earlier in this chapter, along with the original questions and answer explanations. a What does the Hamiltonian look like for a general multiple-particle system? The answer is Start with the Hamiltonian: Hψ(r1, r2, r3, ...) = Eψ(r1, r2, r3, ...) When you’re dealing only with a single particle (see Chapter 3), you can write this as With multiple particles, you have to take into account all the particles for Hψ(r1, r2, r3, ...). This equals the following:b What does the total energy look like for a general multiple-particle system? The answer is The total energy of a multiple-particle system is the sum of the energy of all the particles like this: And this equals

221Chapter 9: Corralling Many Particles Togetherc What is the total potential energy of the system in Figure 9-1, assuming that there are Z electrons? The potential energy of the multi-electron system is just the sum of the potential energies of the electrons (the second term) and the nucleus (the first term).d What is the total energy of the system in Figure 9-1, assuming that there are Z electrons? E is the eigenvalue of The total energy of a multiple-electron system is the sum of the total potential and kinetic energies.e aWtohrattwisictheejursetspuulttosfthapeptwlyoinegxPcihj tawnigceed? The answer is wPhij ePriej = 1. Applying the exchange oper- Here’s what that looks like: particles back they were originally, so Pij2 = 1. Pij Pijψ(r1, r2, ..., ri, ..., rj, ..., rN) = Pijψ(r1, r2, ..., rj, ..., ri, ..., rN) = ψ(r1, r2, ..., ri, ..., rj, ..., rN)f Show that if where C is a constant, then P12 and P14 do not commute — that is, that P12P14 does not equal P14P12. The answer is P12 P14 ψ(r1, r2, r3, r4) ≠ P14 P12 ψ(r1, r2, r3, r4) The wave function is Apply the exchange operator P14, which looks like this: Then apply P12 P14 ψ(r1, r2, r3, r4) like this: Now look at P14 P12 ψ(r1, r2, r3, r4), which looks like

222 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions And here’s what P14 P12 ψ(r1, r2, r3, r4) is: So P12 P14 ψ(r1, r2, r3, r4) ≠ P14 P12 ψ(r1, r2, r3, r4). g Is this wave function symmetric, antisymmetric, or neither? Symmetric. The wave function is Apply the exchange operator, P12: See how these equations relate. Note that P12 ψ(r1, r2) = ψ(r1, r2), so ψ(r1, r2) is symmetric.h Is this wave function symmetric, antisymmetric, or neither? ψ(r1, r2) = (r1 – r2)4 Symmetric. The wave function is ψ(r1, r2) = (r1 – r2)4 Apply the exchange operator P12: P12 ψ(r1, r2) = (r2 – r1)4 Because r(2r)1 – rψ2)(4r1=, (rr22)–. r1)4, you know that ψ(r1, r2) is a symmetric wave function, because P12 ψ(r1, =i Is this wave function symmetric, antisymmetric, or neither?

223Chapter 9: Corralling Many Particles Together Symmetric. The wave function is Apply the exchange operator P12: Note how the answer compares to the original wave function: So ψ(r1, r2) is symmetric.j Is this wave function symmetric, antisymmetric, or neither? Neither symmetric nor antisymmetric. The wave function is Start by applying the exchange operator P12: How does ψ(r1, r2) compare to P12 ψ(r1, r2)? So ψ(r1, r2) is neither symmetric nor antisymmetric.k What is the Hamiltonian of a system of many independent distinguishable particles? The answer is

224 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions You can cut the potential energy up into a sum of independent terms because the potential is independent of each particle, so here’s what the Hamiltonian looks like: l What does the total wave function for a system of independent distinguishable particles look like in terms of the wave functions of each particle? The answer is Because the particles are independent, the wave function is just the product of the individual wave functions, where the Π symbol is just like Σ, except that it stands for a product of terms. m What does the wave function look like for distinguishable particles in a square well? The answer is For a one-dimensional system with a particle in a square well, the wave function is The wave function for a four-particle system is the product of the individual wave functions: As an example, in the ground state, n1 = n2 = n3 = n4 = 1, you have the following: n What are the energy levels of four distinguishable particles in a square well? The answer is For one-particle square wells, the energy levels are For a four-particle system, the total energy is the sum of the individual energies like this: So the energy is

225Chapter 9: Corralling Many Particles Together For example, the energy of the ground state (that is, when all particles are in their ground state), where n1 = n2 = n3 = n4 = 1, iso What do the symmetric and antisymmetric wave functions of three free particles look like? The symmetric wave function looks like this: And the antisymmetric wave function looks like this: When you have three free particles, the symmetric wave function just adds the three wave functions: The antisymmetric wave function includes alternating minus signs:p What do the symmetric and antisymmetric wave functions of multiple free particles look like in general? The symmetric wave function looks like this: And the antisymmetric wave function looks like this: For a system of N particles, the symmetric wave function looks like this — just the sum of the wave functions (where N! is N factorial): The antisymmetric wave function looks like this, with alternating minus signs:

226 Part III: Quantum Physics in Three Dimensions

Part IV Acting onImpulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics

In this part . . .his part introduces you to working with perturba-Ttion theory and scattering theory. Perturbationtheory gives systems a push and then predicts what’sgoing to happen so you can describe more-complexsituations. Scattering theory is all about what happenswhen one particle hits another — at what angle willthe particles separate? With what momentums? It’s allcoming up in this part.

Chapter 10Pushing with Perturbation TheoryIn This Chapter▶ Using perturbation theory to make slight adjustments▶ Applying electric fields to harmonic oscillators Quantum physics allows you to solve only basic systems, such as free particles, square wells, harmonic oscillators, and so on. Yet the real world has all kinds of systems, and of course many don’t match the ideal-world systems that are readily solvable. That’s where perturbation theory comes into the picture. Perturbation theory lets you mix two different types of systems — as long as the addition you’re making to a known system is small. For example, you may have a charged particle oscillating in a harmonic oscillator kind of way, and then you add a constant electric field to the system. If that constant electric field is weak compared to the harmonic oscillator potential, then you can use perturbation theory to find the new energy levels and the new wave functions. This chapter takes a closer look at how this theory works and provides some practice problems for you to build your skills.Examining Perturbation Theory with EnergyLevels and Wave Functions Perturbation theory proceeds by a series of approximations, which is why the perturbation to a known system must be small; otherwise, the small-order approximations become too large to be accurate. Basically, perturbation theory allows you to approximate the solution more and more accurately. This section points out how to use perturbation theory to solve problems with energy levels and wave functions. When working with this theory, you setiagretnwfuitnhctaioHnasmainltdoneiigaennfvoarltuhees.uYnopuertthuernbeadddsyasstemma.llH0 is a known Hamiltonian, with known addition due to the perturbing effect (for example, an electric field), λW, where λ << 1. The λW is the so-called perturbation Hamiltonian, where λ << 1 indicates that the perturbation Hamiltonian is small. Here’s the equation: H = H0 + λW (λ << 1) Determining the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian in Hhe=reH’s0 + λW (where λ << 1) is what solv- ing problems like this is all about. In other words, the problem you want to solve, the Hamiltonian applied to a wave vector:

230 Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics The following example and practice problems examine this theory with energy levels and the wave functions. Later in this section, you solve the perturbed Schrödinger equation for the first- and second-order corrections. Q. Express a perturbed system’s energy 2. Add the first-order correction to the energy, λEn(1). levels in terms of an expansion in λ. En = En(0) + λEn(1) + ... (λ << 1) A. En = En(0) + λEn(1) + λ2En(2) + ... (λ<< 1) 3. Add the second-order correction to Here’s how to solve the problem: the energy as well, λ2En(2). 1. Start with the energy of the unper- En = En(0) + λEn(1) + λ2En(2) + ... (λ << 1) turbed system. En = En(0) + ... 2 . What does the perturbed Hamiltonian look 1. Proceeding by analogy with the example like when you multiply it by the perturbed wave function to give you the perturbed problem, what does an expansion of the Schrödinger equation? wave function of the perturbed system look like, expressed as an expansion in λ Solve It (to the second order)? Solve It

231Chapter 10: Pushing with Perturbation TheorySolving the perturbed Schrödinger equationfor the first-order correctionIn this section, I start with solving for the first-order correction. The first-order correction isthe first approximation to the solution of the perturbed Schrödinger equation, and finding itis the first step to solving the Schrödinger equation.Here’s the perturbed Schrödinger equation (see problem 2 for the calculations): You solve the perturbed Schrödinger equation by noting that the coefficients of λ must all be equal: ✓ The zeroth-order term in λ gives you the following equation: You use this zeroth-order equation to solve perturbation problems. ✓ For the first-order terms in λ, equating them gives you That’s the first-order equation you use to solve perturbation problems. ✓ Next you equate the coefficients of λ2, the second-order terms, giving you That’s the equation you derive from the second order in λ.Ntioonweyqouuahtiaovnes.toThseolfvoellofowriEnn(g1)eaxnadmEpn(l2e) using the zeroth-, first-, and second-order perturba-to find the solutions on your own. shows you how, and the practice problems allow you Q. Given that , where the unperturbed wave function is and the perturbed wave function is , show that , where and are the first- and second-order corrections to the perturbed wave function. A. and . The unperturbed wave function, , isn’t very different from the perturbed wave function, , because the perturbation is small. That means that

232 Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics In fact, you can normalize so that is exactly equal to 1, as assumed in the statement of this equation: Given that you get the following: Because the coefficients of λ must both vanish (that is, λ is not zero), you get the following: • • 3. Proceeding by analogy with the example 4. Multiply by the following expression, problem, what does an expansion of the which equals 1: wave function look like? Solve for the first- order correction to the energy for the per- tpuerrbtuedrbsaytsiotenmH,aEmn(1i)l,tionntiaenrm, sstaorftWin,gtwheith the first-order equation you use to solve to solve for , the first-order correction perturbation problems: to wave function. Solve It Solve It

233Chapter 10: Pushing with Perturbation TheorySolving the perturbed Schrödinger equationfor the second-order correctionNow I turn to the second-order correction to the solution to the Schrödinger equation, whichis the next approximation after the first-order correction. Finding the second-order correc-tion and adding it to the first gives you an even more accurate solution to the Schrödingerequation.This section takes a look at finding the second-order correction to the energy levels. Here IreexcptliaoinnshtoowthyeouencearngyfinledvEeln(s2).sFhoorusldmbaell perturbations, finding the first- and second-order cor- mathematically accurate enough for most purposes. Q. Find the second-order correction to the energy levels, En(2), in terms of .A . Start by multiplying both sides of to get the following: by is equal to zero, so the second term on the right drops out. You get Note that is also equal to zero, you get Because Because En(2) is just a number, you have , you have the following: And because

234 Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics5 . Convert to a form 6 . Find the total energy of a perturbed system involving the unperturbed wave functions, according to perturbation theory, includ- ing the first- and second-order corrections. , instead of the first-order correction to Solve It the wave function, .Solve It

235Chapter 10: Pushing with Perturbation TheoryApplying Perturbation Theoryto the Real World Are you ready to use some numbers? How about seeing the effect of perturbing a harmonic oscillator? This section gives you an example of perturbation theory so you can see how it applies to real life. Say that you have a small particle oscillating in a harmonic potential, back and forth. The Hamiltonian looks like this:where the particle’s mass is m, its location is x, and the angular frequency of the motion isω. (See Chapter 3 for an introduction to harmonic oscillators.)Next, assume that the particle is charged, with charge q, and that you apply a weak electricfield, ε, to the particle. The force due to the electric field in this case is the perturbation,and the Hamiltonian becomes the following:What are the energies of this Hamiltonian? Those are the allowed energy levels of the oscil-lating system. I take a look at solving this equation by using perturbation theory.Q . What are the energy levels of the per- Note that the last term is a constant: turbed Hamiltonian? where . This is the Hamiltonian Solve for the energy levels exactly. of a harmonic oscillator with an added A. constant, which means that the energy levels are You can solve for the exact energy eigen- values by making the substitution Substitute in for C, which gives you the Solve for x: exact energy levels: Substitute this new form of x into the Hamiltonian, which gives you the following:

236 Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics7 . Use perturbation theory to find the 8 . Find the wave functions for the particle in energy levels of the harmonic oscillator harmonic oscillation with an added electric with an applied electric field where the field, where this is the Hamiltonian: Hamiltonian is Include the first-order correction. Solve It Solve It

237Chapter 10: Pushing with Perturbation TheoryAnswers to Problems on Perturbation TheoryHere are the answers and explanations to the practice questions I present earlier in thischapter.a Proceeding by analogy with the example problem, what does an expansion of the wave functionof the perturbed system look like, expressed as an expansion in λ (to the second order)? Theanswer is . Start with the wave function of the unperturbed system, : Add the first-order correction, : Then add to that the second-order correction to the wave function, :b What does the perturbed Hamiltonian look like when you multiply it by the perturbed wave function to give you the perturbed Schrödinger equation? The answer is Start with the perturbed Hamiltonian: Plug in the perturbed wave function: Recall that the perturbed energy looks like this:En = En(0) + λEn(1) + λ2En(2) + ... (λ << 1) Putting all those equations together gives you the following:

238 Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physicsc Proceeding by analogy with the example problem, what does an expansion of the wave func-tion look like? SthoelvpeefrotrurthbeatfiiornstH-oarmdeilrtocnoirarnec, tsitoanrttiongthweitehntehregyfifrosrt-othredepreertquurabteiodnsyyostuemus,eEtn(o1),in terms of W,solve perturbation problems: The answer is . Start with the first-order equation you use to solve perturbation problems: Multiply by to get the following: Simplify this by subtracting the first term on each side to get the equal termsd Multiply by the following expression, which equals 1: to solve for , the first-order correction to wave function. The answer is Multiply by the following expression, which is equal to 1: Here’s what you get: And that equation equals the following: The m = n term is zero because .

You can find 239Chapter 10: Pushing with Perturbation Theory by multiplying by the first-order correction, which follows: Here’s what you get: Substitute this into your equation for , which gives you That’s the first-order correction to the wave function, . Therefore, the wave function of the perturbed system, to the first order, ise Convert to a form involving the unperturbed wave functions, , instead of the first-order correction to the wave function, . The answer is The problem asks you to start with From problem 4, you know that Substitute that value of into the equation for En(2), which gives you Combining terms gives you

240 Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics f Find the total energy of a perturbed system according to perturbation theory, including the first- and second-order corrections. The answer is You’ve already solved for En(1) and En(2) in problems 3 and 5: The total energy with the first- and second-order corrections isEn = En(0) + λEn(1) + λ2En(2) + ... (λ << 1) Substitute in the values of En(1) and En(2). The total energy isg Use perturbation theory to find the energy levels of the harmonic oscillator with an applied electric field where the Hamiltonian is The answer is The corrected energy is given by where λW is the perturbation term in the Hamiltonian. That is, here, λW equals qεx. The first- order correction is Note that , because that’s the expectation value of x, and for harmonic oscilla-tors, the average value of x is zero. So the first-order correction to the energy, as given byperturbation theory, is zero.

241Chapter 10: Pushing with Perturbation Theory So what is the second-order correction to the energy? It’s Because λW = qεx, you get the following: Changing notation from to and to gives you the following: Take this expression apart term by term. The zeroth order energy is For a harmonic oscillator, the following equations are true: ✓ ✓ In addition, and . So make the appropriate substitutions.The second-order correction becomes ✓ ✓ Substitute in the for En(0) – En+(01) and En(0) – En–(01), which gives you the following: ✓ ✓

242 Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics Now substitute for and , which gives you ✓ ✓ Simplify. The cancels out, so ✓ ✓ Therefore, adding these terms together, the second-order correction is Thus, the energy of the harmonic oscillator in the electric field should be Note that perturbation theory gives you the same result as the exact answer in this case. h Find the wave functions for the particle in harmonic oscillation with an added electric field, where this is the Hamiltonian: Include the first-order correction. Here’s the answer: The corrected wave function including the first-order correction is Change the notation to use and ; this becomes And because λW = qεx, you can substitute for λW. The equation becomes

243Chapter 10: Pushing with Perturbation Theory In fact, only two terms are nonzero because . The two nonzero terms are ✓ ✓ And because the following equations are true: ✓ ✓ you know that In other words, adding an electric field to a harmonic oscillator spreads the wave function of the harmonic oscillator so that it includes adjacent states.

244 Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics

Chapter 11 One Hits the Other: Scattering TheoryIn This Chapter▶ Finding differential cross sections▶ Changing between lab and center-of-mass frames▶ Finding scattering amplitude and putting the Born approximation to work In quantum physics, scattering theory has to do with — you guessed it — microscopic p articles hitting each other. Two particles come at each other at great speed and — wham! — hit each other and then depart, usually at great speed. Quantum physics has a lot to say about scattering theory, and you solve problems using its approach in this chapter.Cross Sections: Experimenting with Scattering To completely understand scattering theory, you need to know how a scattering experiment works. To get an idea of what a scattering experiment looks like, look at Figure 11-1. Scattered particles dA = r 2dΩ Figure 11-1: Incident particles r Scattering dΩ from a Unscattered particles target.

246 Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics As you can see, particles are being sent in a stream from the left and are interacting with a target. Most of them continue on unscattered, but some particles interact with the target and scatter. The particles that do scatter do so at a particular angle. You give the scattering angle as a solid angle, dΩ, which equals sin θ dθ dϕ, where ϕ and θ are the spherical angles (which I introduce in Chapter 7). The total cross section, σ, is the cross section for scattering of any kind, through any angle. The number of particles scattered into a specific dΩ per unit time is proportional to a very important quantity in scattering theory: the differential cross section. In quantum physics, the differential cross section is given by dσ(ϕ, θ)/dΩ. It’s a measure of the number of particles per second scattered into dΩ per incoming flux. The incident flux, J, (also called the current density) is the number of incident particles per unit area per unit time. I take a look at the differential cross section and total cross section in the following example and practice problems. Q. Relate dσ(ϕ, θ)/dΩ to dN(ϕ, θ)/dΩ. A . where N(ϕ, θ) is the number of particles Start with the differential cross section: at angles ϕ and θ. Tip: Note that dσ(ϕ, θ)/dΩ has the dimen- sions of area, so calling it a cross section is appropriate. Think of it as the size of The differential cross section is the the bull’s-eye when you’re aiming to scat- number of particles per second scattered ter incident particles through a specific into dΩ per incoming flux. You can write solid angle. the number as dN(ϕ, θ), and the incomingflux is J, so you have the following:

247Chapter 11: One Hits the Other: Scattering Theory 1. How do you relate the total cross section, 2. How do you relate the total cross section, σ, to the differential cross section, σ, to the differential cross section, dσ(ϕ, θ)/dΩ, in terms of Ω? dσ(ϕ, θ)/dΩ, in terms of θ and ϕ? Solve It Solve It

248 Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics A Frame of Mind: Going from the Lab Frame to the Center-of-Mass Frame Scattering experiments occur in the lab, but you do scattering calculations in the center- of-mass frame. Using the center-of-mass frame is a lot easier because the net momentum is zero in that frame. sFvinciegcaluoitdtrceeeitrny1et1dvo-2'an2ltasabha.nnoogwtlheseaθr1s,pctararatttviecerlleiinn(ggv2ianlatbtvh='1e0la)bla,abannfdrdahtmihtese.ioTtt.hhAeefrtfeiprrsattrhtpeiaccrletoilcilsliessi,cotanrta,tvteherleeidnfigrastattapnva1glralebti,cθils2eainsd v1 lab v2 lab v'1 lab θ1 m1 m2 θ2 v'2 lab Figure 11-2: a) Scattering b) in the lab frame. Take a look at the same scattering in the center-of-mass frame (where the center of mass of the entire system is stationary) in Figure 11-3. In the center-of-mass frame, the particles are heading toward each other. After they collide, they head away from each other at angles θ and π – θ. Giving each particle the same momentum (in opposite directions) makes the cal- culations easier. Much scattering theory calculations involve translating between the lab and center-of-mass frames, so this section looks at how to translate between those frames in a nonrelativistic (wfraoym. Ftohreelxaabmfrpalem, eh)o?wTadkoeyaoluooreklaatteththeeeaxnagmlepsleθa1 n(fdrotmhetnheexctefnewterp-orof-bmleamsssf.rame) and θ

249Chapter 11: One Hits the Other: Scattering Theory v1 c v2 c v'1 c θ m1 m2 v'2 c π − θ Figure 11-3: a) Scattering b) in the center-of- mass frame. Q . How do you relate tfhraemaen)galensdθθ1 (from Find the components of these velocities the center-of-mass (from by using cos θ and sin θ: the lab frame) in terms of vcm and v'1c? • v'1lab cos θ1 = v'1c cos θ + vcm A. • v'1lab sin θ1 = v'1c sin θ Note that you can ocof tnhneecctenv1tleabr aonf dmva1scs, Divide these two equations by each using the velocity other, as such: vcm, this way: v1lab = v1c + vcm And you can relate the velocity of parti- cle 1 after its collision with particle 2 this way: v'1lab = v'1c + vcm

250 Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics3 . Start with this relation: 4 . Relate θ2 to θ; given that tan θ2 = cot(θ/2), show that . Solve It iRtieelsa;teusθe1 and θ without involving the veloc- only the masses of the two parti- cles, given that the collision is elastic (that is, kinetic energy is conserved) and and .Solve It Target Practice: Taking Cross Sections from the Lab Frame to the Center-of-Mass Frame The differential cross section is dσ/dΩ (see the earlier section “Cross sections: Experimenting with Scattering” for details). The differential dσ is infinitesimal in size, and it stays the same between the lab frame and the center-of-mass frame. But what about dΩ? The angles that make up dΩ differ when you translate between frames. This section takes a look at how those angles differ. Here’s how the differential cross sections relate: ✓ Lab frame: dΩ1 = sin θ1 dθ1 dϕ1 for the lab differential cross section: ✓ Center-of-mass frame: dΩ = sin θ dθ dϕ for the center-of-mass differential cross section: The following example and practice problems look at how that works.

251Chapter 11: One Hits the Other: Scattering TheoryQ . Show that the following is true: Put these three equations together, which gives you Because the angles are symmetric,A . ϕ = ϕ1, so cInenthteerl-aobf-,mdaΩs1s=frsaimn eθ,1 ddΩθ1=dϕsi1n. Aθnddθidnϕt.he Because dσlab = dσcm, you get And you can write this as 5 . Start with the following relation: Convert it to this, adding the masses: Solve It

252 Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics 6 . Start with two particles of equal mass colliding in the lab frame, where one particle starts at rest. Show that the two particles end up traveling at right angles with respect to each other in the lab frame. Solve ItGetting the Goods on Elastic ScatteringSometimes during a scattering experiment, the scattering of two particles is elastic — kineticenergy is conserved. When kinetic energy is conserved, you can say much more about theresults of the scattering.In this instance of an elastic scattering, assume that the interaction between the particlesdepends only on their rTehlaetnivyeoduisctaanncues,e|trh1a–t re2q|u. aIntiothnistosescotlivoenf,oyrotuhestparrot bbaybgielitttyinthgattheSchrödinger equation.a particle is scattered into a solid angle dΩ — this probability is given by the differentialcross section, dσ/dΩ.Q . Find the Schrödinger equation for the You can change problems of this kind into two decoupled problems. The first incident and scattered particle system. decoupled equation considers the center of mass of the two particles as a free par-A . , where ticle, and the second equation is for a fic- titious particles of imsna’stssimgn1mifi2c/a(mnt1 w+ hme2n). . The first equation you’re discussing scattering. The second equation is the one to concentrate on.

253Chapter 11: One Hits the Other: Scattering Theory 7. Find the wave function of an incident parti- 8 . The wave function of a scattered particle cle. Assume that the scattering potential looks like this: V(r) has a very finite range and find the wave function outside that range. Solve It where f(ϕ, θ) is the scattering amplitude, A is a dimensionless normalization factor, and . Find the dimensions of f(ϕ, θ). Solve ItThe Born Approximation: Getting the ScatteringAmplitude of Particles The scattering amplitude is f(ϕ, θ), where the scattered wave looks like this:A is a normalization factor, and .Relating the scattering amplitude to the differential cross section is easy (for info on thedifferential cross section, see the earlier section titled “Cross Sections: Experimenting withScattering”):So as soon as you find the scattering amplitude, you’ve found the differential cross section.To find the scattering amplitude, you have to solve the Schrödinger equation:

254 Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics You can also write this as You can express the solution to this differential equation as the sum of a homogeneous solution and a particular solution: ψ(r) = ψh(r) + ψp(r) The homogeneous solution satisfies the following equation: So the homogeneous solution is a plane wave, corresponding to the incident plane wave: You can find the particular solution in terms of Green’s functions, so the solution to the Schrödinger equation is where G(r – r') is a Green’s function and equals This integral breaks down to You can solve this integral in terms of incoming and/or outgoing waves, and the Green’s function takes the following form: So here’s a messy version of the Schrödinger equation that you use to find the scattering amplitude. The first term is the homogeneous solution, and the second term is the particu- lar solution with Green’s function filled in: To solve this equation, you use the Born approximation, a series expansion that provides you with terms that match the actual solution successively more closely. The example and practice problems show you how.

255Chapter 11: One Hits the Other: Scattering TheoryQ . Find the zeroth-order Born approximation — that is, find the zeroth-order term in the fol- lowing equation (the term before any corrections are added in). A . ψ0(r) = φinc(r). The problem here is to solve . Break the problem into an initial term and a correction term: where The second term is the correction term, so the zeroth-order term in the approximation is just the first term: ψ0(r) = ϕinc(r) 9. Find the first-order Born approximation. 1 0. Find the second-order Born approximation You get the first-order term by substituting by plugging the first-order Born approxima- v'2c = v2 c into tion into Solve It Solve It

256 Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics Putting the Born Approximation to the Test So is the Born approximation your magic pill? Can it solve even the odd potentials you may encounter? The good news is you can push the Born approximation to the limit and see exactly what it can do to solve various types of scattering problems. For example, for weak, spherically symmetric potentials, the differential cross section looks like the following:For example, you may find the differential cross section for two electrically charged par-ticles of charge Z1e and Z2e, where the potential looks like this:The following text explores how to use the Born approximation with some problems.Q . Find the differential cross section in inte- The differential cross section looks like this for a weak, spherically symmetricalgral form for two electrically charged potential:particles of charge Zli1kee atnhdis:Z2e, wherethe potential looks Therefore, here’s what the differential A. cross section looks like using the first Born approximation in integral form:

257Chapter 11: One Hits the Other: Scattering Theory 11. Find the differential cross section by 12. aaYnolegualesdminnautschhleeaulnasb,aZlfpr2ah=ma8ep2.aisIrft5itc8hl°ee, ,wsZch1aa=ttte4isr, ianitggaininst solving this integral for two electrically the center-of-mass frame and what is the charged particles of charge Z1e and Z2e: differential cross section? Solve It Solve It

258 Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics Answers to Problems on Scattering Theory The following are the answers to the practice questions I present earlier in this chapter. a How do you relate the total cross section, σ, to the differential cross section, dσ(ϕ, θ)/dΩ, in terms of Ω? The answer is Start with the differential cross section: The total cross section, σ, is the sum of the differential cross section over all angles, so you inte- grate it, giving you the following: b How do you relate the total cross section, σ, to the differential cross section, dσ(ϕ, θ)/dΩ, in terms of θ and ϕ? The answer is The total cross section, σ, is the sum of the differential cross section over all angles, so it’s equal to And because dΩ = sin θ dθ dϕ, the total cross section, σ, is equal to Put in the limits of integration for a sphere to get the final answer:c Start with this relation: Relate θ1 and θ without involving the velocities; use only the masses of the two particles, given that the collision is elastic (that is, kinetic energy is conserved) and and .

259Chapter 11: One Hits the Other: Scattering Theory The answer is Start with the givens in the problem, the incident velocities in the lab and center-of-mass frames: ✓ ✓ Because the center of mass is stationary in the center-of-mass frame, the total momentum before and after the collision is zero in that frame, so m1v1c – m2v2c = 0 Solve for v2c: The components of momentum are also conserved, so m1v'1c cos θ – m2v'2c cos θ = 0, which means that Because you’re assuming all collisions are elastic, kinetic energy is conserved in addition to momentum, so the following is true: So you can relate the center-of-mass and lab velocities like this: v'1c = v1c and v'2c = v2c This gives you Dividing vcm by v'1c gives you the following: From the example problem in this section, you know that

260 Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics Therefore, you can substitute for vcm/v'1c. Doing so gives you d Relate θ2 to θ. Given that tan θ2 = cot(θ/2), show that You end with Start with the given: tan θ2 = cot(θ/2) Plug in that tan = sin/cos and cot = 1/tan (or cos/sin) to get the following: Now convert from sine to cosine and cosine to sine this way: Now convert back to tangents: tanθ2 = tan(π/2 – θ/2) Take the inverse tangent to get the final answer: e Start with the following relation: Convert it to this, adding the masses:

261Chapter 11: One Hits the Other: Scattering Theory End with Start with the given: In problem 3, you relate θ1 to θ like this: If you want to keep everything in terms of sines and cosines, you can use the following relation: Here’s what you get by using your knowledge of trigonometry: Therefore, taking the derivative with respect to cos θ gives you the following: And plugging this into the earlier equation, you get

262 Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics f Start with two particles of equal mass colliding in the lab frame, where one particle starts at rest. Show that the two particles end up traveling at right angles with respect to each other in the lab frame. The answer is θ2 + θ1 = π/2. Start with the equation for two particles colliding in the lab frame (see problem 3 for the derivation): The masses are equal. If m1 = m2, then you get tan(θ1) = tan(θ⁄2) Therefore, θ1 = θ⁄2. You’ve also seen that the following is true (see problem 5 for the calculations): And by factoring, this becomes Note that tan(θ2) = cot(θ⁄2) = tan(π⁄2 – θ⁄2) Therefore, θ2 = π⁄2 – θ⁄2. Because θ1 = θ⁄2 and θ2 = π⁄2 – θ⁄2, you know that θ2 = π⁄2 – θ⁄2 = π⁄2 – θ1. In other words θ2 + θ1 = π⁄2 So the particles end up at right angles in the lab frame.g Find the wave function of an incident particle. Assume that the scattering potential V(r) has a,very finite range and find the wave function outside that range. The answer is where .

263Chapter 11: One Hits the Other: Scattering Theory Assume that the scattering potential V(r) has a very finite range. Outside that range, the wave functions involved act like free particles. The incident particle’s wave function, outside the limit of V(r), is given by the following equation, because V(r) is zero: where and E0 is the energy of the incident particle. Solving this equation gives you the following: where A is a normalization factor and k0 · r is the dot product between the incident wave’s wave vector and r.h The wave function of a scattered particle looks like this: where f(ϕ, θ) is the scattering amplitude, A is a dimensionless normalization factor, and . Find the dimensions of f(ϕ, θ). The dimensions of f(φ, θ) are length. The scattered wave function looks like this: Here, A is a normalization factor and , where E is the energy of the scattered particle. The wave function must bmeunsot rhmavaelizuendittsoo1f,lseongϕtshc(tro) must be dimensionless. The constant A is dimensionless, so f(ϕ, θ) cancel out the units of length from r in the denominator of ϕsc(r).i Find the first-order Born approximation. You get the first-order term by substituting v'2c = v2 c into The answer is Substitute the zeroth-order term, ψ0(r), into the following equation:

264 Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics This gives you first-order term: Using ψ0(r) = ϕinc(r), you get the following answer: j Find the second-order Born approximation by plugging the first-order Born approximation into The answer is You get the second-order term by substituting the following into the given equation: ✓ ✓ Here’s what the substitution gives you: So you get k Find the differential cross section by solving this integral for two electrically charged particles of charge Z1e and Z2e: The answer is

265Chapter 11: One Hits the Other: Scattering Theory where E is the kinetic energy of the incoming particle: Start with the integral you want to solve for two electrically charged particles of charge Z1e and Z2e: Take the integral: Plug in (1⁄q)2 into the original equation: So recalling that q = 2k sin(θ/2), you know that where E is the kinetic energy of the incoming particle:l You smash an alpha iptainrtitchlee,cZe1n=te4r,-oafg-mainassst a lead nanudclewuhsa,tZi2s=th8e2.dIifftfehreesnctiaatltecrrionsgsasnegclteioinn?thTehelab frame is 58°, what is frame answer is θ = 59°and . The ratio of the particle’s mass, m1/m2, is 0.02, so the scattering angle in the center of mass frame, θ, is Here, θlab = 58°. Solving for θ gives you θ = 59°. Here’s the differential cross section (see problem 11 for the calculations): Substitute the numbers of the incident alpha particle’s energy (8 MeV) to get the final answer:

266 Part IV: Acting on Impulse — Impacts in Quantum Physics

Part VThe Part of Tens

In this part . . .he Part of the Tens is traditional in all For DummiesTbooks, and here you see ten tips for solving quan-tum physics problem, ten famous problems that quan-tum physics answered, and ten pitfalls to watch out forwhen solving quantum physics problems.

Chapter 12 Ten Tips to Make Solving Quantum Physics Problems EasierIn This Chapter▶ Rewriting equations into simpler terms▶ Working with operators▶ Using tables▶ Breaking equations into parts Whether you’ve recently started solving quantum physics problems or you’ve been working through them for a while, one thing is certain: Quantum physics offers lots of places where you can get stuck or take a wrong turn. The good news: Although quantum physics is no walk in the park, I provide ten tips to make your journey a bit easier. Take a look at the tips here — they may save you a lot of time and headaches.Normalize Your Wave Functions You need to normalize a wave function before you can work with it in a general way. Normalizing the wave function means that the total probability of the particle’s appearing somewhere in space is 1. Make sure you normalize your wave functions to 1 as in the follow- ing example: Check out Chapter 2 for the ins and outs of normalizing wave functions.Use Eigenvalues Eigenvalues are the values you get when you apply an operator to an eigenstate of that operator. You may apply an operator to a state vector and get a value, but that value isn’t an eigenvalue if the state vector changes:

270 Part V: The Part of Tens Here’s the way eigenvalues should behave — note that the state vector remains unchanged: Chapter 1 delves deeper into how eigenvalues work. Meet the Boundary Conditions for Wave Functions In quantum physics, boundary conditions don’t have anything to do with international rela- tions; boundary conditions give you the information you need to solve a problem. You solve the problem up to a set of undetermined constants and then use the boundary conditions to finish. For example, consider a wave-function problem. Take a look at this square well: These boundary conditions mean that ✓ ψ(0) = 0 ✓ ψ(a) = 0 Using the boundary conditions, you can solve the Schrödinger equation to get the wave function: ψ(a) = A sin(ka) = 0 Refer to Chapter 2 for more information on boundary conditions for wave functions. Meet the Boundary Conditions for Energy Levels Boundary conditions can also help you find the energy levels. You solve for the energy levels up to arbitrary constants and then apply the boundary conditions to finish the solu- tion. Consider the following square well: Here’s what the wave function looks like: ψ(a) = A sin(ka) = 0

271Chapter 12: Ten Tips to Make Solving Quantum Physics Problems EasierSolving for the energy levels isn’t hard; the boundary conditions mean thatka = nπ n = 1, 2, 3, ...Now solve for k, the wave number:And that means you can constrain the energy this way:Solving for E gives you the final energy-levels formula: Check out Chapter 2 for in-depth material on boundary conditions for energy levels.Use Lowering Operators to Findthe Ground State The trick to finding the wave function for a system is often finding the ground state using the lowering operator, which basically gives you the energy state one lower than the current one. The ground state of a particle is its lowest energy level. Applying the lowering operator to the first excited state should give you the ground state so that you have an actual result to work with. The following equation can help: Applying the bra gives you the following: In the case of a harmonic oscillator, substitute for a using its position representation:Then you use to get the following:Multiplying both sides by gives you

272 Part V: The Part of Tens Rearrange the equation: Solve this, and you get the following answer for the ground state: Use Raising Operators to Find the Excited States If you use a lowering operator to solve for the ground state (see the preceding section, “Use Lowering Operators to Find the Ground State”), you use raising operators to solve for the excited states. Although you probably picture a 3-year-old running around in an excited state on Halloween night, an excited state in quantum physics is a higher-energy state. The raising operator is the operator that gets you to a higher state. For example, the first excited state is You can use the raising operator, , on the ground state: So in the position representation For example, for a harmonic oscillator, the raising operator is So plug the value for into the ψ1(x) equation:And because , you can make the following substitution:

273Chapter 12: Ten Tips to Make Solving Quantum Physics Problems EasierThis equals the following:Rationalize the fraction and simplify the equation:You know the ground state, so you can plug in the equation for ψ0(x). Because , you get the following answer for the first excited state:Use Tables of Functions In quantum physics, you usually have two ways to determine the form of a function: Use a generator equation or use a table of functions. Using a table of functions is usually a safer bet. For example, here’s a well-known formula for the wave function of a harmonic oscillator:where .Hn(x) is the nth Hermite polynomial, which is defined this way: Many people try to derive complex functions like Hermite polynomials themselves. But other people have already done the work for you, so why take chances? You can get polyno- mials like these from tables of functions, like this: ✓ H0(x) = 1 ✓ H1(x) = 2x ✓ H2(x) = 4x2 – 2 ✓ H3(x) = 8x3 – 12x ✓ H4(x) = 16x4 – 48x2 + 12 ✓ H5(x) = 32x5 – 160x3 + 120x

274 Part V: The Part of Tens Decouple the Schrödinger Equation When you can, break the Schrödinger equation into parts that make it easier to solve. If you have four particles that interact only weakly, for example, ignore that weak interaction to decouple the Schrödinger equation into four independent parts. Multiple simple Schrödinger equations are always easier to solve than one giant complex one.Use Two Schrödinger Equations for HydrogenThe Schrödinger equation lets you solve for a particle’s wave function. But the Schrödingerequation for hydrogen can be intertwined for the electron and the proton, so it’s best if youdecouple the two.Recast the Schrödinger equation to use R and r instead of re (the position of the electron)and rp (the position of the proton), where is the center of mass and r is the difference between re and rp: r = re – rp This change decouples the Schrödinger equation to the following two equations: ✓ ✓ This is much easier to solve than the Schrödinger equation in terms of re and rp. Take the Math One Step at a Time When you’re solving quantum physics problems, some people tend to get overwhelmed. Take a deep breath and don’t get lost in the math. Yes, there’s a lot of math in quantum physics, but you can master it. Take it one step at a time, show your work, and check every- thing twice. With time, what seems impossible will become just another skill. Good luck with it!

Chapter 13 Ten Famous Solved Quantum Physics ProblemsIn This Chapter▶ Locating and describing particles▶ Getting insight into atomic behavior▶ Seeing the light on photons Quantum physics is famous for the problems it’s solved. Some, like spin, take special equipment to see; others, like the spectrum of hydrogen in stars, don’t. There are only a limited number of systems that quantum physics has solved through and through, so when someone comes up with a breakthrough that really explains a system, it’s big news. This chapter provides you with a list of some of quantum physics’s more famous solved problems. I have limited space in this chapter to delve too deeply into the problem-solving, so after I introduce the problems, I direct you to some Web sites where you can find more in-depth info about the ins and outs of each of these problems.Finding Free Particles Finding the free-particle wave function (and discussing wave packets) is an important aspect of quantum physics. A free particle is just that — one that doesn’t feel any forces or isn’t constrained by any boundaries. Yet free-particle wave functions have to be physical — they can’t go to infinity, for example, which is why the idea of wave packets was introduced. Check out rugth30.phys.rug.nl/quantummechanics/potential.htm for an example. This tutorial also has some QuickTime videos on wave functions.Enclosing Particles in a Box You can use the free-particle wave function and wave packets and take those concepts a step further to enclose particles in a box — that is, trap them in a potential well. This sce- nario is much more true to life, because all particles come up against some kind of force sooner or later.

276 Part V: The Part of Tens Take a look at rugth30.phys.rug.nl/quantummechanics/potential.htm. This site, which includes videos, discusses particles in a box. Grasping the Uncertainty Principle Quantum physics students are no strangers to uncertainty. The inability to find exact answers is a common theme in quantum physics, and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is one of the more famous quantum physics problems. This principle says that the better you know something’s position, the less well you know its momentum, and vice versa. Visit plato.stanford.edu/entries/qt-uncertainty for a good discussion of solving the uncertainty principle in both momentum/position and energy/time. Eyeing the Dual Nature of Light and Matter One of quantum physics’s most famous results is explaining how matter/particles and light waves can share many of the same properties. This result was found by accident when par- ticles going through slits exhibited wave-like properties in addition to particle-like properties. Go to dev.physicslab.org/Lessons.aspx and click on “Modern/Atomic” and then “An Outline: Dual Nature of Light and Matter.” This site has a good discussion of the problems and their solutions. Solving for Quantum Harmonic Oscillators Another problem that quantum physics is good at solving is the quantum harmonic oscilla- tor. A harmonic oscillator undergoes periodic motion, like a spring, and a q uantum harmonic oscillator is just a harmonic oscillator on the scale of atoms. Take a look at fermi.la.asu.edu/PHY531/hogreen/node7.html for a nice treatment of the math involved with quantum harmonic oscillators. Uncovering the Bohr Model of the Atom Solving for the quantized orbitals of the hydrogen atom is one of quantum physics’s most famous solved problems. No model until the quantized Bohr model really explained the light spectrum you get from hydrogen atoms. Check out csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/light/bohr.html for a more in- depth discussion of the Bohr model of the quantized atom.

277Chapter 13: Ten Famous Solved Quantum Physics ProblemsTunneling in Quantum Physics Like wayward dogs and children, particles have ways of getting places they’re not supposed to be — according to the rules of classical physics, at least. The fact that particles can tunnel to locations that their energy seems to prohibit is one of quantum physics’s most surprising results. Tunneling refers to particles that are where they wouldn’t be allowed classically because they didn’t have enough energy — for example, a particle that appears on the other side of a high energy barrier. Go to www.physicspost.com/science-article-173.html for a good, five-page treat- ment of tunneling.Understanding Scattering Theory Treating particles as wave functions that can interact is the foundation of scattering theory. This model has proven remarkably successful at predicting the results of scattering interac- tions between particles. Visit www.ph.ed.ac.uk/~gja/qp/qp10.pdf for a good overview of the topic.Deciphering the Photoelectric Effect Albert Einstein’s early explanation of the photoelectric effect has always been one of quan- tum physics’s prized solutions. The problem was that when you shine light on metal, it frees electrons; however, when you increase the intensity of the light, it doesn’t increase the energy of the freed electrons, just their number. Einstein’s solution of the problem — posit- ing a quantized work function that electrons had to overcome before they could be free — explained the experimental results. Check out www.walter-fendt.de/ph14e/photoeffect.htm for the intricacies of the photoelectric effect along with the apparatus used to detect it.Unraveling the Spin of Electrons Electrons spin inherently, but it took some heavy-duty experimental apparatus to determine that fact. You can hardly tell that electrons spin, but spin adds another quantum number to an electron’s state. That means that two electrons can seemingly occupy the same quantum state in terms of position and the like, but if they have d ifferent spins, they won’t interfere with each other. Take a look at hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/spin.html for a good discus- sion of electron spin, intrinsic angular momentum, and the Stern-Gerlach experiment that discovered it all.

278 Part V: The Part of Tens

Chapter 14 Ten Ways to Avoid Common Errors When Solving ProblemsIn This Chapter▶ Remembering definitions▶ Using the right formulas No one ever said solving quantum physics problems was easy. In fact, most of the time, it’s downright difficult. You can encounter plenty of stumbling blocks along the way. But if you’re going to make mistakes, you should at least make sure those mistakes involve the hard stuff — not, say, forgetting that little cross-shaped dagger symbol when you’re writing an adjoint. The good news is that you don’t have to fall victim to common mistakes. This chapter helps you avoid some of the most common errors people make when solving quantum physics problems. Keep them in mind as you work through your problems.Translate between Kets and Wave Functions Make sure you don’t confuse kets and wave functions for each other when solving quantum physics problems. Kets are basis-free state vectors, and wave functions are the spatial repre- sentations of kets. Wave functions are the spatial representations of kets, so you haveTake the Complex Conjugate of Operators When you reverse a bra and ket pair — for example, when you take them from one side of an equation to another — don’t forget to take the complex conjugate of any operators. That is, . Instead

280 Part V: The Part of Tens Take the Complex Conjugate of Wave Functions When you normalize a wave function, you make sure that its square integrates to 1 over all space. When you’re normalizing, bear in mind that the term |ψ(x)|2 is made up of the wave function multiplied by its complex conjugate (where the imaginary parts change sign). Don’t neglect to take the complex conjugate, as follows: Include the Minus Sign in the Schrödinger Equation When using the Schrödinger equation, you have to include the minus sign in front of the kinetic energy term. The momentum operator includes , and when you rationalize the fraction, multiplying the imaginary number by itself in the denominator gives you –1; therefore, you need the minus sign at the beginning to give you a positive kinetic energy. Don’t forget the minus sign in the momentum term of the Schrödinger equation — many people leave that out by mistake: Include sin θ in the Laplacian in Spherical Coordinates The Laplacian operator is the second-order differential operator that appears in the Hamiltonian. In spherical coordinates, the Laplacian operator looks like this: where L2 is the square of the orbital angular momentum. Never forget the sin θ term in the spherical coordinates version of the Laplacian:

281Chapter 14: Ten Ways to Avoid Common Errors When Solving ProblemsRemember that λ << 1 in PerturbationHamiltonians When you create a perturbation Hamiltonian, make sure that λ << 1 (that λ is much smaller than 1); inadvertently making a perturbation too large is easy. The perturbation Hamiltonian looks like this: For details on perturbation theory, see Chapter 10.Don’t Double Up on Integrals Make sure you get the limits of integration right. It’s easy to fall into the trap of doubling up — that is, ending up with twice the answer because you used twice the integration inter- val (one angle varies from 0 to 2π, and the other varies only from 0 to π to cover all space). When you’re integrating over space using spherical coordinates, don’t forget that the second integral goes to π, not 2π:Use a Minus Sign for Antisymmetric WaveFunctions under Particle Exchange When you exchange particles in an antisymmetric wave function — that is, when you exchange one particle in a multi-particle wave function with another particle in the same wave function — don’t forget to include a minus sign in the front: Pijψ(r1, r2, ..., ri, ..., rj, ..., rN) = –ψ(r1, r2, ..., ri, ..., rj, ..., rN)

282 Part V: The Part of Tens Remember What a Commutator Is Commutators are important pieces to solving quantum physics problems, particularly when you want to move one operator past another one in an equation. As silly as it sounds, some people forget the definition of a commutator. Remember the following definition: [A, B] = AB – BA In other words, the commutator is the difference between using one operator first and then using the other operator first. Take the Expectation Value When You Want Physical Measurements When quantum physics looks for an actual physical measurement, it takes the expectation value. An expectation value is the physical value you expect, on average, of a particular mea- surement. (Refer to Chapter 1 for more info.) Don’t forget about the expectation value when you’re ready to get a physical measurement:

Index• Numerics • using to find ground state, 271–272 using with harmonic oscillators1/2-integer spin, 121–1223-D free particle wave function, 136–137 directly on eigenvectors, 763-D harmonic oscillators, 149–150 finding energy after, 74–753-D isotropic harmonic oscillators, 172–174 overview, 72–733-D rectangular coordinates anti-Hermitian operators, 33 antisymmetric wave functions answers to problems on, 151–160 of multiple free particles, 2253-D spherical coordinates overview, 213–214 under particle exchange, using minus sign answers to problems on, 175–181 general discussion, 161–166 for, 281 versus symmetric, 222–223•A• of three free particles, 225 of two free particles, 218adjoints, 18 atoms. See also electronsallowed energy levels (E), 40–41 Bohr model ofamplitude, probability, 8, 9, 11 as harmonic oscillators, 69, 276angular frequency of motion, 235 hydrogenangular momentum. See also spin answers to problems on, 199–206 answers to problems on, 112–120 and center-of-mass coordinates, and commutators, 100–101 degeneracy, 197–198, 205–206 186–187 eigenvectors of hydrogen energy levels, 195–198 overview, 183 general discussion, 102–103 Schrödinger equation appears for, obtaining, 104–105 raising or lowering, 106–107 183–185 lowering operator (L–) solving dual Schrödinger equation for, and angular momentum eigenvalues, 188–189 104–105 solving radial Schrödinger equation for, and angular momentum eigenvectors, 190–194 102–103 with multiple electrons, 209 using to find ground state, 271–272 using with harmonic oscillators, 72–76 •B• LoLLzyxveooorpppveeeirrreaaawtttooo, 9rrr,,,7999–8879,,,91990981,, 110011, 102, 104, 124 treating with matrices, 108–111 barrier, potential, 50annihilation operator Bessel functions and angular momentum eigenvalues, and Schrödinger equation for radial part 104–105 of wave function, 167–171 and angular momentum eigenvectors, for small r, 178 102–103 spherical, 177, 179 Bohr model of atom, 276 Bohr radius, 41, 55, 205

284 Quantum Physics Workbook For DummiesBorn approximation particles stuck in box well potential to find the differential cross section, finding energy levels, 144–146 256–257 general discussion, 141–143 first-order, 255, 263 normalizing wave function, 146–148 second-order, 255, 263 to solve Schrödinger equation to find Schrödinger equation in three scattering amplitude, 254–255 dimensions, 133–135 zeroth-order, 255 center-of-mass coordinates, 186–187bosons, 122, 213 center-of-mass framesbound states. See also energy wells answers to problems on, 259, 265 answers to problems on, 54–67 scattering in, 248, 249 energy levels for particle trapped in taking cross sections from lab frames to, square well, 55 250–252 when particles stuck in square wells, translating between lab frames and, 216–217 248–250boundary conditions, 60, 63, 65, central potential, spherical coordinates, 163 CGS (centimeter-gram-second) 270–271box well potential, particles stuck in units, 199 classical physics 3-D version of square well, 141 finding energy levels, 144–146 definition for acceleration, 70 normalizing wave function, 146–148 energy equation, 71, 85 overview, 141 harmonic oscillators, 69, 70bra-ket notation, 12–13. See also bras; kets restriction of particles from certainbras corresponding ket, 12 regions, 48, 62 finding orthonormal ket to, 29 “wayward” particles, 277 multiplying with ket, 12, 13 column vector, 18 overview, 12 commutators purpose of, 14 and angular momentum, 100–101 with six elements, finding identity definition of, 282 finding, 74 operator for, 30 complete reflection, 61 and spin, 121 complex conjugate for state vector of four-sided dice, 28 of kets, 13 for state vector of pair of dice, 12 of operators, 15, 279 taking from one side of equation to of wave functions, 280 complex number, 18 another, 279 conditions boundary, 60, 63, 65, 270–271•C• continuity, 62 conjugateCartesian coordinates complex 3-D free particle wave function, 136–137 of kets, 13 3-D harmonic oscillators, 149–150 of operators, 15, 279 3-D rectangular coordinates, 151 of wave functions, 280 free wave packets, 138–140 Hermitian, 12 overview, 133 constraints, 76, 178, 179 continuity conditions, 62, 179 continuous energy levels, 69

Index 285continuous states, 23 •D•continuous wave function, 179coordinates degeneracy angular momentum, 197–198, 205–206 Cartesian degenerate eigenvalues, 23 3-D free particle wave function, energy, 197 136–137 3-D harmonic oscillators, 149–150 differential cross section 3-D rectangular coordinates, 151 center-of-mass frame, 250 free wave packets, 138–140 defined, 246 overview, 133 finding, 263–265 particles stuck in box well potential, lab frame, 250 141–149 relating scattering amplitude to, 253 Schrödinger equation to three relating total cross section to, 247, 258 dimensions, 133–135 for weak, spherically symmetric potentials, 256 center-of-mass, 186–187 spherical Dirac notation, 12–13. See also bras; kets Dirac, Paul (physicist), 12 3-D, 161–166 discrete states free particles in, 167–169 overview, 161–162 defined, 7 sin θ in, 280 systems without, 23 spherical potential wells, dual nature of light and matter, 276 170–171 •E•creation operator eigenfunctions and angular momentum eigenvalues, 104–105 of L2 operator, 164 and angular momentum eigenvectors, symmetric versus antisymmetric, 213–214 102–103 eigenstates using with harmonic oscillators directly on eigenvectors, 76 and angular momentum, 97, 124 finding energy after, 74–75 overview, 72–73 of harmonic oscillator, 87cross section of Lz operator, 113 See raising operator (L+) differential raising by one level. center-of-mass frame, 250 defined, 246 spatial, 77 finding, 263–265 lab frame, 250 for spin, 121–123, 126, 128, 129 relating scattering amplitude to, 253 values when apply operators to. See relating total cross section to, 247, 258 eigenvalues for weak, spherically symmetric potentials, 256 eigenvalues total defined, 246 of angular momentum, 104–105, 113–114 relating to differential cross section, 247, 258 in equation for harmonic oscillators, 85cubic potential, 158 finding, 33–36current density (incident flux), 59, 61, 246 overview, 269–270 eigenvectors of angular momentum answers to problems on, 113–114 obtaining, 104–105 overview, 102–103 raising or lowering, 106–107 in equation for harmonic oscillators, 85 finding, 33–36

286 Quantum Physics Workbook For DummiesEinstein, Albert (physicist), 277 exchange operator, 211–212elastic scattering, 252–253 excited states, 272–273electric field, and perturbation theory, 229, expectation value 235, 236, 240, 242, 243 of identity operator for six-sided dice,electron volts (eV), 56 31–33electrons for physical measurements, 18, 282 kinetic energy of nucleus and, 209 of two four-sided dice, 30–31 multiple, 209 spin of, 277 •F•energy levels continuous, 69 fermions, 112, 122, 213 of four distinguishable particles in square first-order Born approximation, 255, 263 frames well, 224 meeting boundary conditions for, 270–271 center-of-mass for particle trapped in square well, 55–56 answers to problems on, 259, 265 and perturbation theory, 229–234 scattering in, 248, 249 of proton undergoing harmonic taking cross sections from lab frames to, 250–252 oscillation, 91 translating between lab frames and,energy states, quantized, 40 248–250energy wells lab bound states, 54–67 scattering in, 248 determining allowed energy levels, 40–41 taking cross sections from, 250–252 overview, 37 translating between center-of-mass potential steps frames and, 248–250 tunneling (plowing through), 50–53, free particles 62, 277 in spherical coordinates, 167–169 wave functions when particle doesn’t have enough 3-D, 136–137 energy, 48–49 finding, 275 when particle has plenty of energy, free wave packets, 138–140 45–47 functions potential wells 3-D free particle wave, 136–137 spherical, 161, 170–171 antisymmetric wave trapping particles in, 275–276 of multiple free particles, 225 square wells overview, 213–214 defined, 37 under particle exchange, using minus energy levels of four particles in, 224 general discussion, 37–39 sign for, 281 particles stuck in, what bound states versus symmetric, 222–223 look like, 216–217 of three free particles, 225 Schrödinger equation for particle in, of two free particles, 218 54–55 Bessel symmetric, translating to, 44–45 and Schrödinger equation for radial part wave functions for particles in, 57, 224 of wave function, 167–171 wave function for small r, 178 general discussion, 37–39 spherical, 177, 179 normalizing, 42–43Example icon, explained, 3

continuous wave, 179 Index 287 eigenfunctions Hermite polynomials, 79, 80, 90–91, 273 of L2 operator, 164 Hermitian adjoint, 33 symmetric versus antisymmetric, Hermitian conjugate, 12 Hermitian operators, 18, 33 213–214 Hooke’s law, 70 Green’s, 254 hydrogen atoms Legendre, 164, 175–176 Neumann, 167–171, 177–179 answers to problems on, 199–206 symmetric wave and center-of-mass coordinates, 186–187 how Schrödinger equation appears for, versus antisymmetric, 222–223 general discussion, 213–214 183–185 of multiple free particles, 225 hydrogen energy levels, 195–198 of three free particles, 225 overview, 183functions, tables of, 273 solving dual Schrödinger equation for,•G• 188–189 solving radial Schrödinger equation for,Gaussian wave packet, 154gradient operators, 15 190–194Green’s functions, 254ground state, 55, 88–90, 271–272 •I••H• icons, explained, 3 identity operatorshalf-integer spin, 121–122Hamiltonian operator for bras and ket with six elements, 30 defined, 15 and angular momentum, 97 for pair of six-sided dice, 31–33 defined, 15 incident flux, 246 finding ground state wave function, 77–78 integer spin, 122 for multiple-particle system, 220 integrals, not doubling up on, 281 overview, 70–71 intrinsic angular momentum. See spin perturbation Hamiltonian, 229, 235, inverse of operators, 18 isotropic harmonic oscillators, 3-D, 172–174 237, 238 of system of many independent •K• distinguishable particles, 223–224 kets viewed in terms of matrices, 82–84 corresponding bra, 12harmonic oscillators difference from wave functions, 279 3-D, 149–150 multiplying with bra, 12, 13 answers to problems on, 85–94 orthonormal, 29 finding excited states’ wave functions, with six elements, 30 taking from one side of equation to 79–81 another, 279 overview, 69 using raising and lowering operators with kinetic energy. See also elastic scattering of electrons and nucleus, 209 directly on eigenvectors, 76 of harmonic oscillators, 85 finding energy after, 74–75 of proton, in Schrödinger equation, 184Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, 276 term of, in hydrogen atom’s Schrödinger equation, 199

288 Quantum Physics Workbook For Dummies•L• minus sign, in Schrödinger Equation, 280 momentum, angularL2 operator, 100, 102, 104, 124lab frames answers to problems on, 112–120 and commutators, 100–101 scattering in, 248 degeneracy, 197–198, 205–206 taking cross sections from, 250–252 eigenvectors of translating between center-of-mass obtaining, 104–105 frames and, 248–250 overview, 102–103Laguerre polynomials, 172–174, 179, raising or lowering, 106–107 Lz operator, 97, 98, 101, 102, 104, 124 180, 204 overview, 97–100Laplacian operator treating with matrices, 108–111 monofont terms in this book, 1 3-D Schrödinger equation using, 134 multi-particle systems defined, 15 answers to problems on, 220–225 including sin θ in, in spherical exchanging particles, 211–212 multiple-electron systems, 209–210 coordinates, 280 overview, 207–208 in problem on behavior of particle symmetric and antisymmetric, 218–219 symmetric and antisymmetric wave trapped in energy well, 38 in spherical coordinates, 162–163 functions, 213–214Legendre differential equation, 164 systems of many distinguishableLegendre functions, 164, 175–176Legendre polynomials, 164, 175 particles, 215–217light, dual nature of, 276 multiple-electron systems, 209–210linear momentum operators, 15 multistate system, defined, 7loawnedrianngguolpaerrmatoomr (eLn-t)um eigenvalues, •N• 104–105 and angular momentum eigenvectors, negative sign, in Schrödinger equation, 280 Neumann functions, 167–171, 177–179 102–103 Newton’s Second Law, 70 using to find ground state, 271–272 normalizing using with harmonic oscillators state vectors, 8, 28 directly on eigenvectors, 76 wave functions, 42–43, 269 finding energy after, 74–75 nucleus, kinetic energy of electrons and, overview, 72–73Lx operator, 98, 99, 101 209Ly operator, 98, 101 number operator (N), 73, 83, 86Lz operator, 97, 98, 101, 102, 104, 124 •O••M• operatorsm quantum number, 128 applying to its eigenvector, 23–26matrices commutators of, 21–22 complex conjugate of, 279 Hamiltonian operator viewed in terms of, defined, 8 82–84 expectation values of, 18–20 spin in terms of, 126–127 treating angular momentum with, 108–111matter, dual nature of, 276

Index 289Hamiltonian nLzuompbeerratoopre, r9a7t,o9r8(,N1)0,17,31,0823,,18064, 124and angular momentum, 97defined, 15 overview, 14–18finding ground state wave function, SPPP–xzy operator, 98 operator, 98 77–78 operator, 98 (spin lowering)for multiple-particle system, 220 128, 129overview, 70–71 operator, 124, 125,perturbation Hamiltonian, 229, 235, 237, 238 S+ (spin raising) operator, 124, 125, 127, 128–130of system of many independent distinguishable particles, 223–224 S2 (spin squared) operator, 124, 126viewed in terms of matrices, 82–84 for spin, 124–125Hermitian, 18, 33 Sz (spin in the z direction) operator, 124, 125, 127–129identityfor bras and ket with six elements, 30 unitary operators, 18defined, 15 unity operators, 15for pair of six-sided dice, 31–33 orthogonal kets, 15inverse of, 18 orthonormal kets, 15, 16, 17, 29L–an(ldowanegriunlgarompeormateonrt)um eigenvalues, oscillators. See harmonic oscillators 104–105 •P•and angular momentum eigenvectors, particles free, 136–137, 167–169, 275 102–103 multi-particle systems, 207–225 restriction of from certain regions,using to find ground state, 271–272 48, 62 stuck in box well potential, 141,using with harmonic oscillators, 144–148 tunneling, 50–53, 62, 277 72–75 pendulums, 69L+an(draaisnignuglaorpmeroamtoern)tum eigenvalues, perturbation Hamiltonians, 229, 235, 237, 104–105 238, 281 perturbation theoryand angular momentum eigenvectors, answers to problems on, 237–243 102–103 application of, 235–236 and electric field, 229, 235, 236, 240,using to find excited states, 272–273 242, 243using with harmonic oscillators, 72–76 and energy levels and wave function,L2 operator, 100, 102, 104, 124 229–234 overview, 229Laplacian photoelectric effect, 277 plane waves, 463-D Schrödinger equation using, 134 potential barrier, 50–53. See also tunneling potential energy, 85, 199defined, 15including sin θ in, in spherical coordinates, 280in problem of how particle trapped in energy well behaves, 38in spherical coordinates, 162–163linear momentum, 15LLyx operator, 98, 99, 101 operator, 98, 101

290 Quantum Physics Workbook For Dummiespotential steps. See also potential barrier •S• defined, 45 example of, 45 SSS–2+ (spin lowering) operator, 124, 125, 128, 129 when particle doesn’t have enough (spin raising) operator, 124, 125, 127–130 energy, 48–49 (spin squared) operator, 124, 126 when particle has plenty of energy, 45–47 scalars, 100potential wells scattering theory box well potential, particles stuck in 3-D version of square well, 141 answers to problems on, 258–265 finding energy levels, 144–146 normalizing wave function, 146–148 Born approximation, 256–257 overview, 141 spherical, 161, 170–171 calculations in center-of-mass frame, trapping particles in, 275–276 248–252principal quantum number, 163, 197probability, 8, 9, 10, 11 elastic scattering, 252–253probability amplitude, 8, 9, 11, 27–28, 38probability density, 49, 62 experiments with, 245–247Px operator, 98Py operator, 98 getting scattering amplitude of particles,Pz operator, 98 253–255•Q• overview, 245, 277quantization condition, 195quantized energy states, 40 Schrödinger equationquantum, defined, 7quantum harmonic oscillator, 276 and 3-D free particle, 136–137quantum tunneling, 62, 277 for box well potential, 142–143, 155•R• breaking into two parts, 274raising operator (L+) and angular momentum eigenvalues, to find scattering amplitude, 253–254 104–105 and angular momentum eigenvectors, for four independent particles in square 102–103 using to find excited states, 272–273 well, 216 using with harmonic oscillators directly on eigenvectors, 76 and free wave packets, 138–139 finding energy after, 74–75 overview, 72–73 for hydrogen atoms, 183–185rectangular coordinates, 3-D, 151 for incident and scattered particlereduced mass, 186Remember icon, explained, 3 system, 252row vector, 18 including minus sign in, 280 for isotropic harmonic oscillator, 172–173 for particle trapped in square well, 38–39, 54–55 perturbed, solving for first-order correction, 231–232 perturbed, solving for second-order correction, 233–234 for potential barrier, 50 for radial part of wave function, 167 for regions x < 0 and x > 0, 46 in spherical coordinates, 162 in spherical coordinates with spherical potential, 166, 175–176 for three-dimensional harmonic oscillator, 149 using two for hydrogen, 274 writing in one dimension, 39 second-order Born approximation, 255, 263

Index 291sin θ, in spherical coordinates, 280 general discussion, 37–39solved quantum physics problems, Schrödinger equation for particle trapped famous Bohr model of atom, 276 in, 54–55 dual nature of light and matter, 276 free-particle wave functions, 275 symmetric, translating to, 44–45 photoelectric effect, 277 quantum harmonic oscillator, 276 symmetric, wave functions for scattering theory, 277 spin of electrons, 277 particle in, 57 trapping particles in potential well, wave functions for particles in, 224 275–276 tunneling, 277 state vectors. See also operators uncertainty principle, 276spherical Bessel functions, 167–171, answers to problems on, 27–36 177–179 bra-ket notation, 12–14spherical coordinates describing states of system, 7–11 3-D answers to problems on, 175–181 normalizing, 8, 28 general discussion, 161–166 isotropic harmonic oscillators, overview, 7 172–174 states free particles in, 167–169 overview, 161–162 bound sin θ in, 280 spherical potential wells, 170–171 answers to problems on, 54–67spherical harmonics, 163, 202spherical Neumann functions, 167–171, when particles stuck in square wells, 177–179 55, 216–217spherical potential wells, 170–171spherical well, 161 continuous, 23spin Stern-Gerlach experiment, 277 answers to problems, 128–130 eigenstates for, 121–123 symmetric multi-particle systems, of electrons, discovery, 277 integer or half-integer, 122 218–219 operators for, 124–125 overview, 121 symmetric wave functions in terms of matrices, 126–127springs, 69 versus antisymmetric, 222–223square root of the probability, 8, 9square wells general discussion, 213–214 defined, 37 energy levels for particle trapped in, of multiple free particles, 225 55–56 of three free particles, 225 energy levels of four distinguishable Sz (spin in the z direction) operator, 124, particles in, 224 125, 127–129 •T• tables of functions, 273 Tip icon, explained, 3 tetrahedrons, 11, 27 total angular momentum quantum number, 163 total cross section defined, 246 relating to differential cross section, 247, 258 total energy for multiple-particle system, 220–221 of perturbed system, 240 tunneling (plowing through barrier), 50–53, 62, 277

292 Quantum Physics Workbook For Dummies•U• for distinguishable particles in square well, 224uncertainty principle, 276unitary operators, 18 figuring hydrogen energy levels using,unity operators, 15 195–196•V• and figuring out energy levels, 40 for four-particle system, 224vectors. See also eigenvectors free-particle, 275 column, 18 of incident particle, 253 row, 18 for isotropic harmonic oscillators, state. See also operators answers to problems on, 27–36 172–173, 179 bra-ket notation, 12–14 meeting boundary conditions for, 270 describing states of system, 7–11 for N particles, 211 normalizing, 8, 28 normalizing, 42–43 overview, 7 for one-dimensional system with particle•W• in square well, 224 overview, 37–39wave functions for particle in symmetric square well, 57 of 3-D free particle, 136–137, 153 and perturbation theory antisymmetric of multiple free particles, 225 overview, 229 overview, 213–214 solving perturbed Schrödinger equation under particle exchange, using minus sign for, 281 for first-order correction, 231–232 versus symmetric, 222–223 solving perturbed Schrödinger equation of three free particles, 225 of two free particles, 218 for second-order correction, 233–234 complex conjugate of, 280 in spherical coordinates, 163–164, continuous, 179 difference from kets, 279 166, 176 symmetric, 213–214, 222, 225 wave-particle duality, 276 •Z• z-axis, and spin, 121 zeroth-order Born approximation, 255

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