1.The Legacy of Racism In the Golden Age of Cartoons
The Censored Eleven
The Warner Bros. Cartoons
No Longer In Distribution
1. A belief or doctrine that inherent differences among the various human races determine cultural or individual achievement, usually involving the idea that one's own race is superior and has the right to rule others.
2. A policy, system of government, etc., based upon or fostering such a doctrine; discrimination.
3. Hatred or intolerance of another race or other races.
An unfavorable opinion or feeling formed beforehand or without knowledge, thought, or reason.
Any preconceived opinion or feeling, either favorable or unfavorable.
Unreasonable feelings, opinions, or attitudes, especially of a hostile nature, regarding a racial, religious, or national group.
A literary or artistic work that imitates the characteristic style of an author or a work for comic effect or ridicule.
A pictorial, written, or acted representation of a person that exaggerates his characteristic traits for comic effect.
6.A Thought Experiment
7.A Thought Experiment
Imagine a change in history. Africans colonize the Americas. They take Europeans as slaves and make them work in the fields of the south. Eventually there is a civil war and the whites are freed. However, they are treated as second class citizens. An animation company staffed by black animators create a character, who is a parody of white males.
A caricature of a certain type of white male.
Is this an offensive character?
9.Fat Albert & The Cosby Kids(TV series ran from 1972-1985)
Are these offensive characters?
Written and Produced by Bill Cosby
10.American Music is Shaped by Black Musicians
Rhythm & Blues
Rock & Roll
11.Minstrel show performers Rollin Howard and George Griffin, circa 1855.
The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the Civil War, black people in blackface. Minstrel shows lampooned black people.
13.Bert Williams was the only black member of the Ziegfeld Follies when he joined them in 1910. Shown here in blackface, he was the highest-paid African American entertainer of his day
In the 1920s and 30s, Al Jolson was America’s most popular and highest paid singer and actor. He appeared in the first sound film The Jazz Singer (1927)
Al Jolson Sings “Mammy” in blackface in The Jazz Singer (1927). This movie is the first “talkie” that ends the silent film era.
16.Jim Crow Laws
17.Jim Crow Laws
18.World War II
Japanese American internment was the relocation and internment by the United States government in 1942 of about 110,000 Japanese Americans and Japanese who lived along the Pacific coast of the United States to camps called "War Relocation Camps," in the wake of Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor. 62% were American citizens.
Information, esp. of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view.
The dissemination of such information as a political strategy.
Propaganda is used to redefine people in strategic ways to support a cause.
The goal is to demonize the enemy.
American anti-Japanese imagery from World War II
Left: Nazi propaganda posters against “Degenerate Music” “Settlement of one state.”
Center: “The Jew warmongers laughed at prolonged war.”
Right: “The Eternal Jew”
24.A scene that is now edited out
of Disney’s Fantasia showing a black centaur as a servant to a white centaur.
Every major animation studio made films that contained imagery that was, at best racially insensitive, and at worst blatantly racist.
Warner Bros cartoons pulled from distribution in 1968.
Sunday Go to Meetin' Time
(1936) Friz Freleng
All This and Rabbit Stew (1941) Tex Avery
featuring a character named Inki. He was a main character in five films from 1939 to 1950.
Angel Puss (1944) Chuck Jones
Title Year Director
1. Hittin' the Trail for Hallelujah Land (1931) Rudolf Ising
2. Sunday Go to Meetin' Time (1936) Friz Freleng
3. Clean Pastures (1937) Friz Freleng
4. Uncle Tom's Bungalow (1937) Tex Avery
5. Jungle Jitters (1938) Friz Freleng
6. The Isle of Pingo Pongo 1938, 1944 (reissue) Tex Avery
7. All This and Rabbit Stew (1941) Tex Avery
8. Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs (1943) Robert Clampett
9. Tin Pan Alley Cats (1943) Robert Clampett
10. Angel Puss (1944) Chuck Jones
11. Goldilocks and the Jivin' Bears 1944, 1951 (reissue) Friz Freleng
28.Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs
Clampett was a fan of Jazz.
29.Tin Pan Alley Cats
Features a Fats Waller (1904-1943) caricature. Waller was a jazz pianist, organist, composer, singer, and comedic entertainer.
30.Movies to watch
Watch Any Bonds Today (1:32)
Designed to promote sales of war bonds.
Note Bugs Bunny in Al Jolson blackface at end.
Watch Tin Pan Alley Cats
Fats Waller parody
Watch Coal Black and de Sebbin Dwarfs
Snow White parody