Igneous Structures and Field Relationships

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  • 1.Chapter 4: Igneous Structures and Field Relationships We covered much of this in the review. A few topics remain.
  • 2.Figure 4-1. a. Calculated viscosities of anhydrous silicate liquids at one atmosphere pressure, calculated by the method of Bottinga and Weill (1972) by Hess (1989), Origin of Igneous Rocks. Harvard University Press. b. Variation in the viscosity of basalt as it crystallizes (after Murase and McBirney, 1973), Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 84, 3563-3592. c. Variation in the viscosity of rhyolite at 1000oC with increasing H2O content (after Shaw, 1965, Amer. J. Sci., 263, 120-153).
  • 3.Structures and Field Relationships Figure 4-5. Cross sectional structure and morphology of small explosive volcanic landforms with approximate scales. After Wohletz and Sheridan (1983), Amer. J. Sci, 283, 385-413.
  • 4.Figure 4-6. a. Maar: Hole-in-the-Ground, Oregon (upper courtesy of USGS, lower my own). b. Tuff ring: Diamond Head, Oahu, Hawaii (courtesy of Michael Garcia). c. Scoria cone, Surtsey, Iceland, 1996 (© courtesy Bob and Barbara Decker). b c a
  • 5.Figure 4-18. Types of pyroclastic flow deposits. After MacDonald (1972), Volcanoes. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Fisher and Schminke (1984), Pyroclastic Rocks. Springer-Verlag. Berlin. a. collapse of a vertical explosive or plinian column that falls back to earth, and continues to travel along the ground surface. b. Lateral blast, such as occurred at Mt. St. Helens in 1980. c. “Boiling-over” of a highly gas-charged magma from a vent. d. Gravitational collapse of a hot dome (Fig. 4-18d).
  • 6.Figure 4-19. Section through a typical ignimbrite, showing basal surge deposit, middle flow, and upper ash fall cover. Tan blocks represent pumice, and purple represents denser lithic fragments. After Sparks et al. (1973) Geology, 1, 115-118. Geol. Soc. America Structures and Field Relationships
  • 7.Structures and Field Relationships Figure 4-9. Development of the Crater Lake caldera. After Bacon (1988). Crater Lake National Park and Vicinity, Oregon. 1:62,500-scale topographic map. U. S. Geol. Surv. Natl. Park Series.
  • 8.Figure 4-23. The formation of ring dikes and cone sheets. a. Cross section of a rising pluton causing fracture and stoping of roof blocks. b. Cylindrical blocks drop into less dense magma below, resulting in ring dikes. c. Hypothetical map view of a ring dike with N-S striking country rock strata as might result from erosion to a level approximating X-Y in (b). d. Upward pressure of a pluton lifts the roof as conical blocks in this cross section. Magma follows the fractures, producing cone sheets. Original horizontal bedding plane shows offsets in the conical blocks. (a), (b), and (d) after Billings (1972), Structural Geology. Prentice-Hall, Inc. (c) after Compton (1985), Geology in the Field. © Wiley. New York. Cracks blocks stope Explains structure MOR & Rift
  • 9.Figure 4-24. a. Map of ring dikes, Island of Mull, Scotland. After Bailey et al. (1924), Tertiary and post-tertiary geology of Mull, Loch Aline and Oban. Geol. Surv. Scot. Mull Memoir. Copyright British Geological Survey.
  • 10.Figure 4-26. Shapes of two concordant plutons. a. Laccolith with flat floor and arched roof. b. Lopolith intruded into a structural basin. The scale is not the same for these two plutons, a lopolith is generally much larger. © John Winter and Prentice Hall. Structures and Field Relationships
  • 11.Figure 4-34. Diagrammatic illustration of proposed pluton emplacement mechanisms. 1- doming of roof; 2- wall rock assimilation, partial melting, zone melting; 3- stoping; 4- ductile wall rock deformation and wall rock return flow; 5- lateral wall rock displacement by faulting or folding; 6- (and 1)- emplacement into extensional environment. After Paterson et al. (1991), Contact Metamorphism. Rev. in Mineralogy, 26, pp. 105-206. © Min. Soc. Amer. Structures and Field Relationships