Islamic Empires of Asia

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  • 1.Islamic Empires of Asia1450-1750 Ottoman Safavid Mughal
  • 2.16th Century
  • 3.Origins The change in Mongol cultural patterns that did occur inevitably exacerbated natural divisions in the empire. As different areas adopted different foreign religions, Mongol cohesiveness dissolved. The nomadic Mongols had been able to conquer the Eurasian land mass through a combination of organizational ability, military skill, and fierce warlike prowess, but they fell prey to alien cultures, to the disparity between their way of life and the needs of empire, and to the size of their domain, which proved too large to hold together. The Mongols declined when their sheer momentum could no longer sustain them. US Library of Congress
  • 4.How did the reasons for both the rise and the eventual collapse of the Mongol Empires direct in many ways the historical development of the Middle East and India in the Age of Gunpowder Empires? Military Prowess Organizational Abilities Ethnic & Religious Identity Momentum? Consider….
  • 5.Ottoman Origins… Chaos of Timur, Seljuk and Byzantine collapse Osman Bey Military Prowess Osman rallying Ghazi “warriors of the faith”
  • 6.Ottoman Empire
  • 7.Documents 1 and 2 What do we know about the origins of Safavid and Mughal rule? How is this similar to Ottoman beginnings? Began as…“small warrior principalities “
  • 8.Safavid Sufi, Shi’ite Origins Shah Ismail I - founder
  • 9.Mughal Empire
  • 10.Similar in their creation of elaborate … Military Institutions Tribal warrior steppe traditions New ‘gunpowder’ weapons, artillery: Muskets, cannons Elite Military Corps Devotion to Islam Administrative Institutions Authority of autocratic dynasty Succession unclear Personal piety and loyalty important Bureaucracy in service to the Sultan
  • 11.Ottoman Empire 1299?-1922 WOW!
  • 12.Ottoman: Religion & Politics Sultan Mehmed II “The Conqueror” Expansion – Two Lands and Two Seas Black Sea & Mediterranean Eastern Europe & Asia Naval Supremacy 1453 “Islam abounds” Trade, craftwork continues Suleyman the Magnificent The Lawgiver r. 1520-1566 Apogee of Ottoman Power Document 3
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  • 14.Hagia Sophia… Mosque
  • 15.
  • 16.Süleymaniye Mosque
  • 17.Ottoman Miniatures
  • 18.What type of insight do these documents provide about Ottoman society, success and relationship to non-Muslim subjects? Document 4 Document 5
  • 19.Ottoman Society…policy & trends Sultan increasingly wealthy and removed from subjects Warrior Aristocracy increasingly removed from inner circle of sultan Bureaucracy increasingly gains power and influence scholars Grand Vizier Janissaries (Devşirme) yeni cheri or "new troops” People of the Book- tolerated, but restricted Jizya Islamicisation of Bosnia Millet communities “Ruled from the harem”
  • 20.Battle of Lepanto, 1571
  • 21.Safavid Empire 1501-1722 The Turkish speakers of Azerbaijan are mainly descended from the earlier Iranian speakers, several pockets of whom still exist in the region. A massive migration of Oghuz Turks in the 11th and 12th centuries not only Turkified Azerbaijan but also Anatolia. Azeri Turks were the founders of Safavid dynasty. From the evidence available at the present time, it is certain that the Safavid family was of indigenous Iranian stock, and not of Turkish ancestry as it is sometimes claimed. It is probable that the family originated in Persian Kurdistan, and later moved to Azerbaijan, where they adopted the Azari form of Turkish spoken there, and eventually settled in the small town of Ardabil sometimes during the eleventh century.
  • 22.Safavid Religion & Politics Founded by Ismail – first to claim shah title Sufi religious order (Sheikh Safi al-Din)  Twelver Shiism legitimized rule Rallied qizilbash Conflict with Ottomans Shah Abbas the Great R. 1588 -1629 Restored Empire Est. Ishfahan Patron of the arts period of cultural florescence Document 6
  • 23.Manuscripts, Textiles (silk)
  • 24.Painting by the French architect, Pascal Coste, visiting Persia in 1841. Imam Mosque Isfahan
  • 25.Mughal Empire 1526–1857
  • 26.Mughal Religion & Politics Muslim Rule/Hindu Majority Babur Brings forces out of Hindu Kush region into South Asia Defeated last of Delhi Sultans Akbar the Great Toleration & Syncretism Divine Faith Empire tripled in size and wealth Document 7
  • 27.Cities & Trade What was the role of the Muslim empires in the new age of Global Trade? How would you characterize their interactions with the West?
  • 28.Urban Centers of industry, craftwork and exchange Land-based agricultural surplus economies as foundation for… Istanbul Ishfahan Delhi Triangle: Shahjahanabad
  • 29.Document 8 Francis I (left) and Suleiman I the Magnificent (right) initiated the Franco-Ottoman alliance. Both were separately painted by Titian circa 1530. Fresco in the Doge's Palace in Venice depicting Doge Mariano Grimani receiving the Persian Ambassadors, 1599 How did the relationship of Muslim Empires with the West compare to the relationship forged by East Asia?
  • 30.Decline of the Muslim World Patterns & Trends
  • 31.STAGNATION Internal multiregional, multiethnic conflict Maintenance of traditional economies/ systems/ technologies European intervention/ Resistance to local control
  • 32.Ibn Kaldhun Lifecycle of the Muslim Empires… Consider our original question … How did the reasons for both the rise and the eventual collapse of the Mongol Empires direct in many ways the historical development of the Middle East and India in the Age of Gunpowder Empires?