1.Islamic Empires of Asia1450-1750
The change in Mongol cultural patterns that did occur inevitably exacerbated natural divisions in the empire. As different areas adopted different foreign religions, Mongol cohesiveness dissolved. The nomadic Mongols had been able to conquer the Eurasian land mass through a combination of organizational ability, military skill, and fierce warlike prowess, but they fell prey to alien cultures, to the disparity between their way of life and the needs of empire, and to the size of their domain, which proved too large to hold together. The Mongols declined when their sheer momentum could no longer sustain them. US Library of Congress
4.How did the reasons for both the rise and the eventual collapse of the Mongol Empires direct in many ways the historical development of the Middle East and India in the Age of Gunpowder Empires?
Ethnic & Religious Identity
Chaos of Timur, Seljuk and Byzantine collapse
Osman rallying Ghazi “warriors of the faith”
7.Documents 1 and 2
What do we know about the origins of Safavid and Mughal rule?
How is this similar to Ottoman beginnings?
Began as…“small warrior principalities “
Sufi, Shi’ite Origins
Shah Ismail I - founder
10.Similar in their creation of elaborate …
Tribal warrior steppe traditions
New ‘gunpowder’ weapons, artillery: Muskets, cannons
Elite Military Corps
Devotion to Islam
Authority of autocratic dynasty
Personal piety and loyalty important
Bureaucracy in service to the Sultan
12.Ottoman: Religion & Politics
Sultan Mehmed II “The Conqueror”
Expansion – Two Lands and Two Seas
Black Sea & Mediterranean
Eastern Europe & Asia
1453 “Islam abounds”
Trade, craftwork continues
Suleyman the Magnificent
Apogee of Ottoman Power
14.Hagia Sophia… Mosque
18.What type of insight do these documents provide about Ottoman society, success and relationship to non-Muslim subjects?
19.Ottoman Society…policy & trends
Sultan increasingly wealthy and removed from subjects
Warrior Aristocracy increasingly removed from inner circle of sultan
Bureaucracy increasingly gains power and influence
Janissaries (Devşirme) yeni cheri or "new troops”
People of the Book- tolerated, but restricted
Islamicisation of Bosnia
“Ruled from the harem”
20.Battle of Lepanto, 1571
The Turkish speakers of Azerbaijan are mainly descended from the earlier Iranian speakers, several pockets of whom still exist in the region. A massive migration of Oghuz Turks in the 11th and 12th centuries not only Turkified Azerbaijan but also Anatolia. Azeri Turks were the founders of Safavid dynasty.
From the evidence available at the present time, it is certain that the Safavid family was of indigenous Iranian stock, and not of Turkish ancestry as it is sometimes claimed. It is probable that the family originated in Persian Kurdistan, and later moved to Azerbaijan, where they adopted the Azari form of Turkish spoken there, and eventually settled in the small town of Ardabil sometimes during the eleventh century.
22.Safavid Religion & Politics
Founded by Ismail – first to claim shah title
Sufi religious order (Sheikh Safi al-Din)
Twelver Shiism legitimized rule
Conflict with Ottomans
Shah Abbas the Great
R. 1588 -1629
Patron of the arts
period of cultural florescence
23.Manuscripts, Textiles (silk)
24.Painting by the French architect, Pascal Coste, visiting Persia in 1841.
Imam Mosque Isfahan
26.Mughal Religion & Politics
Muslim Rule/Hindu Majority
Brings forces out of Hindu Kush region into South Asia
Defeated last of Delhi Sultans
Akbar the Great
Toleration & Syncretism
Empire tripled in size and wealth
27.Cities & Trade
What was the role of the Muslim empires in the new age of Global Trade?
How would you characterize their interactions with the West?
28.Urban Centers of industry, craftwork and exchange
Land-based agricultural surplus economies as foundation for…
Francis I (left) and Suleiman I the Magnificent (right) initiated the Franco-Ottoman alliance. Both were separately painted by Titian circa 1530.
Fresco in the Doge's Palace in Venice depicting Doge Mariano Grimani receiving the Persian Ambassadors, 1599
How did the relationship of Muslim Empires with the West compare to the relationship forged by East Asia?
30.Decline of the Muslim World
Patterns & Trends
Internal multiregional, multiethnic conflict
Maintenance of traditional economies/
Resistance to local control
Lifecycle of the Muslim Empires…
Consider our original question …
How did the reasons for both the rise and the eventual collapse of the Mongol Empires direct in many ways the historical development of the Middle East and India in the Age of Gunpowder Empires?