Communication Theory for Broadcast Majors - My Illinois State

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  • 1.Lee & Baldwin History of “Speech Communication”: Models and Messages
  • 2.1. Rhetoric Earliest study: Ancient cultures Greece: Aristotle, Plato Rome: Cicero, Quintilian China, India Beginning of a discipline (1900-1940) 1914: National Association of Academic Teachers of Public Speaking Departments of English Focus on public speaking
  • 3.1. Rhetoric, cont. From practice to theory (1940-present) Aristotle (again): Logic, credibility, emotion Burke (dramatism): Speech to remove guilt Fisher (narrative paradigm): Stories well told (believable, coherent)
  • 4.2. Early Media Research The beginnings (1900-1920s) Some early writers Charles Cooley (sociology) Robert Park (sociology, journalist, human rights activist) John Dewey (educational philosopher)
  • 5.2. Early Media Research Strong effects models: Post WW 1 (1920s-1950s) Media as “hypodermic needle” or “magic bullet” A “mass audience,”—people with the same characteristics/effects Started with analysis of radio effects, Hitler’s propaganda, and gaining support for U.S. war effort (WWII) Radio available but only 3 tv channels so viewing options limited
  • 6.2. Early Media Research Limited effects models (1950s to 1960s) Post WW2—a move from focus on mass audience to demographic groups People were seen as choice-makers—not “sponges” soaking up media’s influence Origin of Uses and Gratifications Theory
  • 7.2. Early Media Research Summary thoughts Strongest influence from sociology, psychology, social psychology Strong basis in scientific method, “media effects” paradigm A change over the years in how strong media’s influence is Began in early 1900s, but focus continues today
  • 8.3. Scientific View of Face-to-Face Communication Persuasion A move from “rhetoric” (analysis of speeches) to “variables” Both in change of attitudes/beliefs (traditional persuasion) and change in behavior (compliance gaining—more recently) Some early writers (1930s-1950s) Kurt Lewin: Small group interaction, group leadership, gatekeeping, networks Carl Hovland: Persuasion, source credibility, 2-sided messages
  • 9.3. Scientific View of Face-to-Face Communication Relationship research Self-disclosure (Jourard, 1960s) Relational growth: (1970s) Altman & Taylor: Social penetration theory Thibaut & Kelley: Social exchange theory Berger & Calabrese: Uncertainty reduction theory
  • 10.3.5 Sociological View of Face-to-Face Communication (Metts add) Goffman Face and facework Brown & Levinson (socio-linguists) Politeness theory Scheflen Quasi-courtship behaviors Body language and social order: Communication as behavioral control
  • 11.4. Sociology of Culture Chicago School (of Sociology) View: communication creates culture Social reality as process, not effect; “social construction of reality” (Berger & Luckmann, 1969) Symbolic Interactionism & Media We co-create reality through messages Media messages are part of the process of reality construction
  • 12.5. Marxist (critical) Approaches The Original Marx The haves (bourgeoisie) & have-nots (proletariat): owners & workers Economic system (base) drives all else—religion, education, family, culture (superstructure)
  • 13.5. Marxist (critical) Approaches, cont. Modified Marxism (1970’s to present) It’s not just class, but race, sex, etc. Oppression not always deliberate Cultural studies, feminism, semiotics Focus on group-held power, oppression (racism, classism, sexism), empowerment, resistence Media studies take a humanistic and critical turn!
  • 14.Some Models of Communication:Ogden & Richards Triangle of Meaning “D-o-g” Symbol(Word: D-o-g) Referent(Reality) Reference (Thought)
  • 15.Lasswell’s Model of Mediated Communication Who says What in Which channel to Whom with What Effect? (in what Situation and Context?)
  • 16.Lasswell’s Model Who: George Bush, Kim Dae-Jung What: Media Event Which channel: Whitehouse Webpage to Whom: American public with What Effect: Positive PR for Bush’s international program in what Situation: Goodwill trip and Context: War with Iraq; Tense relations with North Korea Example: Presidential Media Event
  • 17.Extensions of Lasswell Technological Determinism (McLuhan): “The medium is the message” (medium (influences) everything else) Media Ecology Theory: TV (and other changes in media)  harmful societal effects (e.g., texting, SNS  relationships?)
  • 18.Symmetry (Balance) Models
  • 19.Symmetry (Balance) Models
  • 20.Shannon & Weaver’s “Information Theory” Model Received Signal Information Source Noise Source Transmitter Receiver Destination Signal Channel
  • 21.Shannon & Weaver’s “Information Theory” Model Received Signal: A storm! A television station Noise Source: Storm damages TV equipment; static from storm in reception B TV broadcasting equipment D TV sets; E viewing public Signal: A storm! C Circuitry, waves Example: Broadcast following crisis
  • 22.Schramm’s Model Encoder Interpreter Decoder Message Encoder Interpreter Decoder Message Field of experience Field of experience
  • 23.Schramm’s Model Encoder Interpreter Decoder Message Encoder Interpreter Decoder Message Field of experience: Limited medical experience Field of experience: Expertise in medical field Example: Broadcast Reporting (medical)
  • 24.Hall’s Circuit of Culture Representation Identity Regulation Consumption Production
  • 25.Hall’s Circuit of Culture Example: Abercrombie & Fitch advertisement
  • 26.Representation: The image Identity: People’s association in mind--stylish, sexy Regulation: None Consumption: Purchasing Production: For certain outlets