Theories of Intelligence - Kalamazoo College

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  • 1.Theories of Intelligence Piaget, Vygotsky, Sternberg, & Gardner
  • 2.Theories of Intelligence Geographic: IQ testing, Spearman Computational: cog. neuroscience Epistemological: child development, Piaget Sociological: Vygotsky, Sternberg Systems: Sternberg, Gardner
  • 3.Frames of MindTheory of Multiple Intelligences Sources of Theory: Piaget Vygotsky Sternberg
  • 4.Jean Piaget 1896 - 1980
  • 5.Piaget: Child as Scientist Discovers & creates knowledge of world Discovers & creates methods of knowing the world Stages of Development Stable periods: equilibrium Transitional / crisis periods: reorganization
  • 6.Piaget: Basic Processes Adaptation: agreement of thought with external world Assimilation: adding new info to old schemas Accommodation: adapting schemas to new info Organization: internal coherence of knowledge
  • 7.Equilibration and Reorganization Confirmation of knowledge  equilibration & stability Disconfirmation of knowledge  disequilibrium & reorganization
  • 8.Stages Sensorimotor (0 - 2 yrs) Symbolic / pre-operational (2 – 7 yrs) Concrete operations (7 – 11 yrs) Formal operations (11 – 15 yrs)
  • 9.Sensorimotor Stage Coordination of reflexes Beginning of object permanence Emergence of causality Active experimenting on world Invention of new means by mental combination (18 – 24 months)  beginning of symbolic thought
  • 10.Symbolic / “pre-operational” Use of symbols: language, numbers, etc. Concrete: limited to here & now failure to recognize conservation Egocentric: focus on child’s relations to objects, not relationships of objects with other objects
  • 11.Concrete Operations Basic logical & mathematical operations (including conservation of substance, volume, weight; classification) Can think in ways that contradict immediate impressions Can’t manipulate systems of abstractions (can’t do proofs of theorems)
  • 12.Formal Operations Operations on operations (Given bucket of water & objects -- asked to figure out why some float and some don’t -- can figure out notion of density.) Mental exploration of possible worlds
  • 13.Piaget: Main Criticisms Periods achieved gradually, with little discontinuity Can perform some higher-level tasks when procedures modified Operations often don’t generalize, but remain specific to tasks
  • 14.Lev Vygotsky 1896 - 1934
  • 15.Lev Vygotsky Intelligence is social & cultural Growth of intelligence based on internalization of social processes Intelligence is product of history; resides in culture
  • 16.Vygotsky: Key Ideas Tools & symbols Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Apprenticeship Learning
  • 17.Robert Sternberg
  • 18.Robert Sternberg Analytic: what IQ & achievement tests measure Practical: real-world problem-solving Creative: art, music, literature, etc.
  • 19.Studying Practical Intelligence Formulating Hypotheses Test In-Basket Exercises  Both use panels of expert raters
  • 20.Howard Gardner
  • 21.Frames of Mind Artificial Intelligence software central processor Single Neuroscience hardware modules Multiple
  • 22.Sources of Evidence Prodigies Brain damage (eliminates or spares) Information-processing systems Developmental history Evolutionary history or plausibility Lab experiments Correlational research (intelligence tests) Encoding in symbol system
  • 23.Criteria for “Intelligence” Neurobiological system Symbol system
  • 24.Intelligences Linguistic Logical-mathematical Musical Spatial Bodily – Kinesthetic Personal: knowledge of self & others
  • 25.Stages of Development Novice  Apprentice  Journeyman  Expert