Glass Science - Washington State University

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  • 1.Glass Science MSE 110 Fall 2016 1
  • 2.Our time together 1. Glass applications & Processing 2. Glass properties 3. Glass laboratory 2
  • 3.Art, Science, & Technology “It is misleading to divide human actions into ‘art,’ ‘science,’ or ‘technology,’ for the artist has something of the scientist in him, and the engineer of both, and the very meaning of these terms varies with time so that analysis can easily degenerate into semantics.” “Nearly everyone believes, falsely, that technology is applied science…. Technology is more closely related to art than to science…because the technologist, like the artist, must work with many unanalyzable complexities. “Historically, the first discovery of useful materials, machines, or processes has almost always been in the decorative arts, and was not done for a perceived practical purpose. Necessity is not the mother of invention – only of improvement.” Smith, C.S., A Search for Structure. MIT Press, Cambridge (1981), 191, 323. Martin Demaine: MIT artist-in-residence Chihuly, Columbus, OH 3
  • 4.Glass economics Glasses account for ½ the total ceramics market (in $) $50 billion/year Carter, C.B. and Norton, M. G., Ceramic Materials: Science and Engineering, 2nd ed, Springer, (2013). (Fig 26.1) 4
  • 5.Glass applications & Processing Introduction & future of glass Antiquity of glass-making Discovery Ancient Near East Egypt Glass-blowing RomAN Medieval Modern processing 5
  • 6.“A Day Made of Glass” 6
  • 7.“A Day Made of Glass – Unpacked” 7
  • 8.Realizing the vision of “Day Made of Glass” 8
  • 9.Glass applications Traditional Bottles, containers, WINDOWS Contemporary OPTICAL FIBERS, DISPLAY GLASS, COVER GLASS PHOTOCHROMIC, ANTIMICROBIAL, SELF-CLEANING Futuristic Grand challenges: clean energy, human health, transportation safety, efficient buildings, clean water 9
  • 10.Natural glass Obsidian Rhyolitic basaltic Impact glasses Tektites Libyan desert glass Trinitite Amber 10
  • 11.Glassmaking – Discovery 11 Glass was art before it was utilitarian First glass made to imitate stone c.5500-3100 BC faience (molded, glazed, fired) c.2500-1550 BC glass core-formed beads Slag from metal-working Origins of glass-making unclear Combined guild workshops Metal slag Faience Glazes on pottery Crucibles Observation of natural glass “William”, 12th Dynasty (MET,NY) Faience Glazed steatite (~4500 BC) soapstone Faience (~3100 BC) quartz + natron/ash “artificial tourquoise” Egyptian blue (~2500 BC) Cuprorivaite “artificial lapis lazuli”
  • 12.Glass of theUlu Burun (LBA) Late bronze age glassmaking Mesopotamian glass c.1550 BC Egyptian glass c. 1480 BC Amarna c. 1350 BC (Ahkenaten) Shipwreck Kas, Turkey (~1305 BC) Copper, tin, and cobalt glass ingots; ivory, precious stones, amber, shell, faience, gold/ copper/ bronze/ pottery vessels Artifacts from 7 cultures 175 glass ingots: “cobalt” and “turquoise” Ingots match crucibles found at Amarna & Qantir Pi-ramesse, Egypt Mycenae Canaan Egypt Nubia Cyprus Assyria Kassite (Babylonia) LBA glassmaking centers 12
  • production: Soda-Lime-Silicate Sand Alkali Plant ash – Late Bronze Age Egypt Salt-tolerant desert plants High Mg, K impurities Natron – Roman From Egyptian word ntr – gives us Na Evaporite mineral mixture, mostly Na2CO3·10H2O; impurities NaHCO3, NaCl, Na2SO4 Lime From crucible From shells or limestone (later) Minor additives Colorants, opacifiers, decolorizers Glasswort (Salicornia) Natron 13
  • 14.GLASS BLOWING First blow pipe developed by “Syrians” ~ 300 BC Brought to Rome in through trade “Romans” were first to mix blown glass with molded glass techniques Revolutionize glass manufacturing ($) Above- Man blowing glass with blow pipe Left- Blow Roman Glass Bowl 3-4 century AD (MET, NY) Left- Cologne Cage Cup 4 century AD (Staatiliche Collection) 14
  • 15.MEDIEVAL GLASS MAKING Nanotechnology and color Pane Glass from Molds Mosaic Applique Complex vessels Chartres Cathedral (France, started 1193) c.350 AD - England 15
  • 16.Glass and scientific innovation Eyeglasses to read books Microscopes to see microscopic life (bacteria) Telescopes to view astronomical bodies Lab vessels to hold and observe chemical reactions (without interaction with the vessel as in some metals) 16 Alembic – alchemical reaction vessel Macfarlane, A. and G. Martin, "A World of Glass," Science, 305(5689), 1407-1408 (2004); Rudyard Kipling, “Eye of Allah” short story, 1924
  • 17.GlassMAKING –modern Batch processing Flat glass Float glass Automated container glass processing 17
  • 18.Bottle making 18
  • 19.Pharmaceutical glass 19
  • 20.Hand-made rolled flat glass 20
  • 22.Fusion draw 22
  • 23.Scientific glassmaking 23
  • 24.Other videos and websites Mythbusters: Glass age I Mythbusters: Glass age II CORNING: the glass age PBS special: “How we got to now: glass” 24