Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Development

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  • 1.Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Development November 3, 2005
  • 2.Comprehension is “The Point” “. . . reader’s process of using prior experiences and the author’s text to construct meaning that is useful to that reader for a specific purpose.” (p. 252)
  • 3.Theories of Comprehension Schema Theory Mental/Situation Models
  • 4.Factors Affecting Comprehension Decoding and fluency skills Vocabulary Background knowledge Academic vs. conversational vocabulary Understanding structure of written language Processing abilities Understanding the purpose for a reading Cognitive abilities/skills
  • 5.Comprehension is “The Point” “. . . reader’s process of using prior experiences and the author’s text to construct meaning that is useful to that reader for a specific purpose.” (p. 252)
  • 6.Assessing Reading Comprehension Graded passage with comprehension questions Story re-telling Think-alouds (to see how student is attempting comprehension Assessing background knowledge
  • 7.Maze: Jose went to the fair. He had to go through a big (hole/gate/tunnel) to get into the fair. Jose ate lots of good (food/mud/it). He had fun at the (dance/zoo/fair). Picture Cards: story re-tellings; answering comprehension questions Assessing Reading Comprehension
  • 8.Teachers who were excellent at facilitating comprehension: Built language at every opportunity (Vocabulary) Activated/built students’ background knowledge (schema) Provided a purpose for reading Followed up on that purpose after reading Taught prediction Continuously motivated students to read for meaning Taught strategies to identify the main idea
  • 9.Example Strategy:Read -- Ask -- Paraphrase (RAP) Read paragraph to yourself. Ask yourself what is the main idea. Put the paragraph into your own words and tell it to your partner. Switch roles.
  • 10.Story Grammar Questioning Read the story and construct a story grammar using the elements you identified Write one question for each of the major story elements. Ask student to answer story grammar questions (using blank story map OR orally OR in pairs OR in small groups)
  • 11.Vocabulary Development Children typically learn approximately 3,000 words per year! Gain new vocabulary through school (instruction) and through family activities, trips, hobbies, reading independently, etc.
  • 12.Stages of Word Learning(adapted from Dade & O’Rourke, 1971) I never saw it before! I’ve heard of it or I can pronounce it, but I don’t know what it means. I recognize it in context - It has something to do with. . .; I know one of its meanings I know it. I know what it means and can use it in several ways or contexts.
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  • 15. What it is and What is Isn’t: It is: hard It isn’t: soft
  • 16.Comprehension Repair Strategies Click – Clunk Read on. Reread sentence. Reread paragraph or section. Look for information from a resource such as a dictionary or glossary. Ask someone else for help.
  • 17.Content through reading guides Teacher can develop guide questions or student or small group can develop questions. Students can work with guides independently or in small groups.
  • 18.Content through strategy use RAP Graphic Organizers Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA) K-W-L Say-Something Paired Reading Question-Answer-Relationship Guide Admit-Exit Strategy
  • 19.Content through modifications to text Increased font size Braille Highlighted texts
  • 20.Content through varying mediums Tape-recorded books Books on CD Buddy-reading E-books entrance.htm
  • 21.Content through Read-Alouds Teacher reads a selection aloud to entire class Good as ‘grabbers’/hooks Allow students to focus on content vs. decoding May aid in memory b/c of multiple avenues of input Model fluent oral reading (support language acquisition for ELL students)
  • 22.Content through Shared Reading Teacher reads aloud while students are looking at text Be explicit about the purpose of the reading Model and teach a specific strategy (e.g., inference, text features, map reading) Provide a follow-up activity that allows students to practice the modeled strategy