NOT HIS REAL NAME, HE’S NOT EVEN A RUSSIAN.
BORN IN GEORGIA (CAUCUSUS) IN 1879.
IOSIF DZHUGASHVILI. FATHER WAS A SHOEMAKER AND A DRUNK. HE GREW UP IN A HUT.
ENROLLS IN SEMINARY;
IS THROWN OUT FOR
3.“COMRADE” STALIN AS REVOLUTIONARY
DOES LITTLE DURING RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
APPOINTED BOLSHEVIK COMMISSAR OF NATIONALITIES AFTER THE REVOLUTION
4.How did Stalin rule the USSR between 1928-1941?
5.STALIN COMES TO POWER
Becomes party secretary
Gets to appoint those loyal to him to Politburo
Takes full power by 1929
Says Lenin wanted him to be his successor
6.The Struggle for power: Stalin v Trotsky
After the death of Lenin in 1924, there was a four year power struggle between Josef Stalin and Leon Trotsky over the succession to the Russian leadership.
Trotsky believed that under his leadership Russia would become a catalyst for the spread of communism across the world. He had been very successful as commander of the Red Army in the civil war and appeared to have Lenin’s support.
Stalin had not played a significant part in the revolution of 1917, but since then he had gathered control of a number of key posts in the Communist Party. Stalin was determined to win control of Russia for himself. He was not interested in international communism, he wanted to make Russia strong and with himself at its head.
By 1928 Stalin emerged as the successor to Lenin and Trotsky was forced into exile.
8.Reasons for Stalin’s success
When Lenin died he had warned the Communist Party of Stalin’s threat in his ‘Political Testament’.
Comrade Stalin is too rude.
Comrade Stalin, having become General Secretary, has great power in his hands, and I am not sure that he always knows how to use that power with sufficient caution.
9.Reasons for Stalin’s successAlthough Lenin had not supported him, Stalin was in a strong position. As General Secretary of the Communist Party Stalin had responsibility for appointing posts in the Party. This meant he could remove opponents and replace them with his supporters. He was also popular in the Party as he wanted to concentrate on turning Russia into a modern, powerful state; this approach was called ‘Socialism in one country’.In contrast Trotsky was much less popular. He had been a Menshevik and had only joined the Bolsheviks in 1917. Trotsky was dismissed as Commissar for War in 1925 and from the Central Committee in in 1926. In 1927 he was expelled from the Communist Party and forced into exile in 1929. Stalin had Trotsky assassinated in Mexico in 1940.Other leading figures of 1917, Kamenev, Zinoviev and Bukharin, were also removed by Stalin.
10.Stalin’s dictatorship: purges and propaganda
Even with his opponents removed, Stalin still felt insecure. He conducted a policy of purges between 1934-1938. Millions were arrested, executed or sent to labor camps.
Stalin used the NKVD, the secret police, to undertake the ‘Great Terror’. Stalin purged:
90% of the army’s top officers,
every admiral in the navy,
1 million Communist Party members,
some 20 million ordinary Russians.
At the same time Stalin encouraged a cult of personality. Propaganda was used to make people aware of the part Stalin was playing in every aspect of life – work, home and leisure.
11.Stalin’s face is seen everywhere. His name is spoken by everyone. His praises are sung in every speech. Every room I entered had a portrait of Stalin hanging on the wall. Is it love or fear? I do not know.
A foreigner describes the glorification of Stalin in the USSR.
12.FIVE YEAR PLANS
planners set goals -
Almost catches up to
Rest of Europe in less
Than 15 years
Right: Happy Peasants
13.The Five Year Plans
Stalin believed that industry could only develop through state control. Under GOSPLAN, three Five Year Plans set targets between 1928-1941 to increase production.
Russian industry changed enormously. New towns such as Magnitogorsk grew up and large projects such as the Dnieper hydroelectric dam were developed. The USSR became a major industrial country.
The human cost was high. Forced labour killed millions, working conditions were poor and hours of work were long.
We are 50-100 years behind the advanced countries. We must make up this gap in ten years. Either we do it or they crush us.
14.Propaganda of the Five Year Plans
ART MUST PROMOTE
THE GOALS OF THEREVOLUTION.
17.NEW CITIES AND MASSIVE PROJECTS BUILT, SOMETIMES WITH AMERICAN HELP
20.Reasons for CollectivisationAgriculture is developing slowly, comrades. This is because we have about 25 million individually owned farms. They are the most primitive and undeveloped form of economy. We must do our utmost to develop large farms and to convert them into grain factories for the country organised on a modem scientific basis.
Stalin in 1928
21.ELIMINATING THE KULAKS
KULAKS WERE PROSPEROUS PEASANTS, WHO SOMETIMES LENT MONEY AND SEED TO OTHER PEASANTS
ACCUSED OF SABOTAGE
STALIN LAUNCHES A CLASS WAR
In the late 1920s, Russia suffered a food crisis. To feed starving workers, Stalin ordered the seizure of grain from the farmers. But, just as happened under War Communism, the peasants hid food or produced less. In 1929 Stalin announced the collectivization of farms.
The most common was the Kolkhoz in which land was joined together and the former owners worked together and shared everything. Stalin persuaded peasants to join by attacking the Kulaks, peasants that had grown as a result of the NEP.
Collectivization had limited success and a terrible human cost, between 10 to 15 million people died as a result. Between 1931 and 1932, there was a famine in Russia as not enough food was being produced. By 1939, Russia was producing the same amount of food as it had in 1928. Collectivization was clearly a disaster and the problem was even worse as its population had increased by 20 million - all of whom needed feeding.
1928 = 73.3 million tons
1934 = 67.6 million tons
1929 = 70.5 million
1934 = 42.4 million
1928 = 26 million
1934 = 22.6 million
Sheep and goats
1928 = 146.7 million
1934 = 51.9 million
25.FAMINE IN UKRAINE
HARVESTS FAIL IN 1932-33
STALIN REMOVED ANYONE HE PERCEIVED AS A THREAT
EVENTUALLY, ALMOST ALL THE “OLD BOLSHEVIKS” OF THE REVOLUTION WERE REPLACED BY “LITTLE STALINS”
Public humiliation of
Those being purged.
Started with killing of
Kirov, a loyal follower
Of Stalin. Liquidations
To hundreds a day.
30.CULT OF PERSONALITY
WORK CAMPS FOR DISSENTERS OR ANYONE ACCUSED BY PARTY
MOSTLY IN SIBERIA – MASSIVE PROJECTS BUILT BY SLAVE LABOR
32.THE GULAG “ARCHIPELAGO”
33.The effects of Stalin’s rule on men and women
Millions of people suffered in Stalin’s purges – workers, peasants and members of the Communist Party itself.
There was brutality, persecution, executions and forced labour. Millions died of starvation and over-work. The shops were empty ; clothes were dull and badly made and household items difficult to find. Although the USSR was a Communist state, the dictatorship of Stalin was just as complete, and in some ways even more bloody, than that of Hitler.
But despite these appalling tragedies, there were some positive aspects to Stalin’s rule.
For example schools were built and social insurance schemes were introduced. Russia became a modern industrial country.
34.STALIN AND HITLER
HITLER DETESTS COMMUNISM; IS DETERMINED TO DESTROY IT
STALIN AND HITLER SIGN NONAGGRESSION PACT IN 1939
Stalin cooperates in Hitler’s invasion of Poland, grabs territory.
Refuses to believe in 1941 that Hitler would invade Soviet Union
35.STALIN AS WAR LEADER
PEOPLE AFTER THREE
ANYONE WHO FAILS,
36.The Great Patriotic War 1941-1945
When Germany attacked the USSR in 1941, Stalin used the same ruthlessness to defend his country.
The defense of the USSR was the bloodiest war in history and cost the lives of millions of people and the destruction of thousands of villages, towns and cities.
The final victory in 1945 was, like everything else, put down to the personal leadership of Stalin by the Soviet propaganda machine.
After the war, Stalin built up the USSR as a superpower, in opposition to the USA. This conflict was known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953.
Long live the
great Stalin 1938
37.SOVIETS DEFEAT NAZIS
MILLIONS OF LOSSES, PERHAPS 20 MILLION DEAD, GREATEST OF WAR
SOVIETS GET AMERICAN MATERIAL HELP
ROLL ACROSS EASTERN EUROPE IN 1944-45
TAKE BERLIN, HITLER COMMITS SUICIDE
HAVE BIGGEST ARMY IN EUROPE, BEST TANKS
Chechens, Kalmyks and Balkars
Small Caucasian peoples accused of cooperating with Nazis
Rounded up and sent into desert in dead of winter to die.
40.DEATH OF STALIN
NO CLEAR SUCCESSION