Spacetime and Einstein, 1905: Clerk in Patent Office, Grand Old Man

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  • 1.1 Spacetime and Einstein 1905: Clerk in Patent Office Grand Old Man! Schoolboy
  • 2.2 Einstein's Three Great Discoveries He verified the existence of “atoms” by explaining the zig-zag motion of pollen grains in water, noticed 80 years earlier. He proved that light could be understood as little “bullets” of energy (or particles). He developed the theory of relativity, in which “moving” observers disagree about simple measurements like time and distance. Discovery #3 showed that space and time are mixed up . . . something that even today seems pretty weird.
  • 3.3 Question: If we disagree about measurements, what can we agree on? Answer: The speed of light is the same for everyone! Some “unintended” consequences: From your point of view moving things seem: But the speeds have to be very big to make much difference. You can go faster and faster but never ever reach the speed of light! Space and time get mixed up . . . Spacetime! Shorter Slower Heavier
  • 4.4 4 MILES Fermilab’s Accelerator pushes protons to: 0.9999995 x (speed of light) (This is about 186,000 miles per second!) Every second, they go around the 4-mile ring about 50,000 times! The protons: Seem 1000 times heavier. Seem 1000 times thinner. Have clocks that run 1000 times slower.
  • 5.5 Space & time are bent, or curved, by matter. This is gravity. Planets, moons and baseballs go “as straight as they can.”
  • 6.6 May 29, 1919 The eclipse that changed the universe . . . And proved Einstein right! Space is bent by Sun’s gravity! . . .
  • 7.7 Space is bent by matter. Multiple images (like ripples on a pond) Same Galaxy See it twice!
  • 8.8 hydrogen neon Spectral lines - Cosmic Barcodes
  • 9.9 Blue shift Red shift eeeeyaooww!! (Object moving away) (Object moving toward)
  • 10.10 A tiny spot from the Hubble Space Telescope Every blob is a galaxy with ~100,000,000,000 stars. BIG BANG 13.5 billion years ago But not BIG, TINY! All are rushing away from us, RED SHIFT . . . expanding Universe! Dr. Hubble (Wheaton) discovered that.
  • 11.11 Extrasolar Planets Graphic of the Neptune-Mass companion to GJ 436 SPEED TO/FROM US TIME  Artist’s impression
  • 12.12 The Cosmological Constant Einstein’s greatest blunder . . . or perhaps his greatest legacy? a case for the accelerating Universe
  • 13.13 Black Holes From Astronomy Picture of the Day The Black Hole is invisible, but you can see stuff around it.
  • 14.14 Hubble Uncovers Dust Disk Around a Massive Black Hole
  • 15.15 Black hole candidate in the spiral galaxy
  • 16.16