1.Direct and Indirect Speech
By: Yeana Kim & Alex Malfitano
2.Table of Contents
Meanings in Context
3.Basic Forms: Direct Speech
“How are you?”
He said, “Hello.”
4.Basic Forms: Indirect Speech
Verb of saying
He said hello to her.
5.Basic Forms: Features of Indirect Speech
6.Basic Meanings: Direct speech as drama
manner of expression
cry, exclaim, gasp
mutter, scream, whisper
type of emotion
giggle, laugh, sob
Adverbs: style and tone of voice
angrily, brightly, cautiously, hoarsely, quickly, slowly
7.Basic Meanings: Direct speech as drama
‘I have some good news,’ she whispered in a mischievous way.
‘What is it?’ he snapped impatiently.
‘Can’t you guess?’ she giggled.
‘Oh, no! Don’t tell me you’re pregnant!’ he wailed, with a whining nasal sound in his voice.
8.Basic Meaning: Indirect speech as narrative
purpose of utterance
admit, agree, deny, explain, promise, respond, suggest
interpretation by reporter
Reporter more concerned with conveying interpretation
Direct speech: shows spontaneous nature of how something was said
9.Basic Meaning: Indirect speech as narrative
The teacher announced that there would be no homework.
Many students declared their excitement.
No homework this week.
No homework this week!!!!
10.Basic Meaning: Summarized Reports
Indirect speech can be made more extreme when used to summarize a speaking event as a report
Difference between what was said and how it was reported can be extremely different
“I am waiting here for you. Where are you? You’re never on time”
He complained about her being late.
11.Basic Meaning: Reporting Verbs
← more distance, greater reporter control ←
SAY is an exception!
*He talked to me, “How are you? Nice to meet you.”
He said, “How are you? Nice to meet you.”
12.Basic Meaning: Report and Summarizing Function
Summarizing function to mention previous discussion
Say and Tell can be used in progressive forms to report and summarize
Bianca was telling me about the new restaurant near school.
My friends were saying that they had seen people slipping on the icy sidewalks.
13.Meanings in Context: News Reports
Quotative frames after quoted material
Direct speech without quotes
Mixture of direct and indirect within single statement
MacLaine concedes that one of the reasons she has had no major romantic involvement ‘for a while’ is that she would have to find a man who shared ‘my spiritual beliefs.’
MacLaine = she = my
14.Meanings in Context: Thoughts and Reactions
Quotation marks for thoughts or reactions (not speech)
Verb indicated function
Thoughts without frame
He thought for a moment, “There’s something wrong here.”
You’re just, “Well, that’s it. Handed in my finals and there’s nothing more I can do”
15.Meanings in Context: Free Indirect Discourse
Particularly common in narrative
Mixture of indirect and direct speech forms
Features of free indirect discourse:
16.Meanings in Context: Constructed Dialogue
During conversations speakers do not use verbatim on report what was really said/happened
Use of quotative verbs
say, to be, to go, to be like
17.Meanings in Context: Constructed Dialogue
New quotatives in English:
18.Activities and Practice
Guess Who Said…?
How does direct and indirect speech change your perception?
Let’s involve TPR and allow students to enjoy and have fun relaying messages.
Practice interviewing people by starting with your peers.
19.Activity: Awareness of Direct vs. Reported
20.Activity: Awareness of Direct vs. Reported
21.Activity: Telephone Game
Step 1: Students break into groups.
Step 2: One student picks a prompt and whispers it to the person next to them.
Step 3: Go around the line until the last person.
Step 4: The last person must say the statement, but in the way the reporting verb used to infer it.
She happily exclaimed, “We love our teacher!”
We love our teacher!!!!