Direct and Indirect Speech, By: Yeana Kim & Alex Malfitano

Download this Presentation


Presentation Transcript

  • 1.Direct and Indirect Speech By: Yeana Kim & Alex Malfitano
  • 2.Table of Contents Activities Meanings in Context Basic Meanings Basic Forms
  • 3.Basic Forms: Direct Speech Quotation marks Quoted Speech “How are you?” He said, “Hello.”
  • 4.Basic Forms: Indirect Speech Quotative frame Attributed speaker Verb of saying Conjunction Backshift Reported Speech He said hello to her.
  • 5.Basic Forms: Features of Indirect Speech
  • 6.Basic Meanings: Direct speech as drama Dramatize utterance Quotative frame: manner of expression cry, exclaim, gasp voice quality mutter, scream, whisper type of emotion giggle, laugh, sob Adverbs: style and tone of voice angrily, brightly, cautiously, hoarsely, quickly, slowly
  • 7.Basic Meanings: Direct speech as drama ‘I have some good news,’ she whispered in a mischievous way. ‘What is it?’ he snapped impatiently. ‘Can’t you guess?’ she giggled. ‘Oh, no! Don’t tell me you’re pregnant!’ he wailed, with a whining nasal sound in his voice.
  • 8.Basic Meaning: Indirect speech as narrative Less drama Quotative frame: purpose of utterance admit, agree, deny, explain, promise, respond, suggest interpretation by reporter Reporter more concerned with conveying interpretation Direct speech: shows spontaneous nature of how something was said
  • 9.Basic Meaning: Indirect speech as narrative The teacher announced that there would be no homework. Many students declared their excitement. No homework this week. Cool. Awesome. No homework this week!!!! HURRAY! REALITY IMAGINATION
  • 10.Basic Meaning: Summarized Reports Indirect speech can be made more extreme when used to summarize a speaking event as a report Difference between what was said and how it was reported can be extremely different “I am waiting here for you. Where are you? You’re never on time” VS. He complained about her being late.
  • 11.Basic Meaning: Reporting Verbs ← more distance, greater reporter control ← SAY is an exception! *He talked to me, “How are you? Nice to meet you.” He said, “How are you? Nice to meet you.”
  • 12.Basic Meaning: Report and Summarizing Function Summarizing function to mention previous discussion Say and Tell can be used in progressive forms to report and summarize Sample sentence: Bianca was telling me about the new restaurant near school. My friends were saying that they had seen people slipping on the icy sidewalks.
  • 13.Meanings in Context: News Reports Quotative frames after quoted material Direct speech without quotes Mixture of direct and indirect within single statement MacLaine concedes that one of the reasons she has had no major romantic involvement ‘for a while’ is that she would have to find a man who shared ‘my spiritual beliefs.’ MacLaine = she = my
  • 14.Meanings in Context: Thoughts and Reactions Quotation marks for thoughts or reactions (not speech) Verb indicated function Thoughts without frame He thought for a moment, “There’s something wrong here.” You’re just, “Well, that’s it. Handed in my finals and there’s nothing more I can do”
  • 15.Meanings in Context: Free Indirect Discourse Particularly common in narrative Mixture of indirect and direct speech forms Features of free indirect discourse:
  • 16.Meanings in Context: Constructed Dialogue During conversations speakers do not use verbatim on report what was really said/happened Includes personal: Thoughts Attitudes Interpretations Use of quotative verbs say, to be, to go, to be like
  • 17.Meanings in Context: Constructed Dialogue New quotatives in English:
  • 18.Activities and Practice 1 Guess Who Said…? How does direct and indirect speech change your perception? 2 Telephone Game Let’s involve TPR and allow students to enjoy and have fun relaying messages. 3 Newspaper Interview Practice interviewing people by starting with your peers.
  • 19.Activity: Awareness of Direct vs. Reported
  • 20.Activity: Awareness of Direct vs. Reported
  • 21.Activity: Telephone Game Step 1: Students break into groups. Step 2: One student picks a prompt and whispers it to the person next to them. Step 3: Go around the line until the last person. Step 4: The last person must say the statement, but in the way the reporting verb used to infer it. Prompt: She happily exclaimed, “We love our teacher!” We love our teacher!!!!
  • 22.Activity: Student Interviews
  • 23.Tabloid/ Newspaper Making