1.Looking Back, Looking Forward: Russia & the WTO
Implications for U.S. Agricultural Trade
2.The Past: Post-Soviet Realities
Planned system that existed outside economic reality.
Resources channeled to military.
Exported oil/gold, imported grain.
System collapsed when subsides ended and agriculture faced markets.
Production fell by 40% after 1991.
Disastrous 1998-1999 grain harvest.
Declining livestock industry.
Food aid in 1992-1995 and 1999-2001.
3.The Present: Recovery
Rebuilding since 1990’s nadir and 2009 economic crisis.
Ended most price controls in 1990s.
1998-2000 ruble devaluation improved competitiveness.
Private sector expansion – now 75% of economy.
Rising primary production.
Agricultural output in 2011 grew by 16.1%.
Russia has land and water resources.
Investment in machinery.
Grain and sunflowers.
4.The Present: Recovery
Rising processed food production.
Production rose 10% annually from 2005-2008.
Improving product quality.
Around 40% of inputs used are imported.
More than a half of the meat and milk products in big Russian cities are provided by import suppliers.
As much as 70% of the raw materials in meat processing plants are imported.
5.The Present: Rising Consumption
Oil money fueling a consumer boom:
Many wealthy in Moscow, St. Petersburg.
Rising middle class in other cities such as Yekaterinburg and Nizhniy Novgorod.
Consumer spending on food has increased from 2006 through 2011 by 114% with an annual growth rate of 17%.
Retail and wholesale trade sales grew by 17.8% in 2010.
Russian retail food and beverage sales are forecast to increase in real terms from just over $200 billion in 2010 to more than $240 billion by 2014—a 20% increase.
Total imports of ag, fish and forestry up 26% in 2011.
6.The Present: Trade
In 2005, Russia imported just under $15.8 billion worth of agricultural products from around the world, but 2011 imports expected to exceed $32 billion.
In 2010, the United States was the seventh largest supplier in the Russian market.
Imports of U.S. food and agricultural products were around $1.3 billion.
Leading products: Red meat, poultry, nuts (almonds and pistachios), food preparations, genetics (livestock and poultry), seafood, bourbon and rum, soybeans, & fresh fruit.
7.The Present: Trade
Russia is the 17th largest U.S. ag export market with increasing trade over time.
8.The Present: Trade
Russia is the 4th largest U.S. poultry market.
9.The Present: Trade
Russia is the 5th largest U.S. beef market.
10.The Present: Trade
Russia is the 6th largest U.S. pork market.
11.The Near Future: WTO Accession
On December 16, 2011, trade ministers approved the terms of Russia’s accession and issued a formal invitation for Russia to join the World Trade Organization (WTO) as its 155th Member.
Ended Russia’s 18-year effort to join the multilateral trading system.
Entry of largest country outside trading system.
Largest accession package ever – 600 pages!
Formal accession likely by August, 2012.
12.The Near Future: WTO Accession
Average duties for all products cut to 7.8% from 10% in 2011.
Reduces the average tariff on farm goods to 10.8% from 13.2%.
Pork: By January 1, 2020, adopt a tariff-only regime bound at 25%.
Apples: Tariffs for all varieties will fall by at least two-thirds within 5 years.
Pears: Reduce tariffs from 10% to 5% within 3 years.
Almonds, walnuts, pistachios and macadamia bound at applied rate of 5% upon accession.
Cheese: Reduce maximum tariff bindings from 25% to 15%–mostly within 3 years.
Soybeans, soybean meal and soybean oil: Russia will bind its tariff on soybeans at zero and cut its tariff on soybean meal from 5% to 2.5 % within a year. Will bind its tariffs on soybean oil at 15% upon accession.
Breakfast Cereals: Russia will reduce tariffs on breakfast cereals from 15% to 10% within 3 years.
Wine: Russia will reduce its tariffs on wine from 20% to 12.5% within 4 years.
13.The Near Future: WTO Accession
Disciplines on Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) measures including risk assessment, sound science, equivalence and right to comment.
Russia has reopened its market to U.S. poultry products.
Russia agreed to an interim approval and registration system for biotech products.
Accept FSIS certifications of pork and poultry producing facilities.
Reduce/eliminate licensing requirements.
14.The Near Future: WTO Accession
Tariff rate quota (TRQ):
Pork: Global TRQ of 400,000 tons for fresh/chilled/frozen pork and a separate TRQ of 30,000 tons for pork trimmings. Both have zero in-quota rates.
Beef: High-quality beef will no longer be subject to quota and will receive in-quota rate. Global TRQ of 11,000 tons for fresh/chilled beef and U.S. country specific TRQ of 60,000 tons for frozen beef. TRQs have an in-quota tariff of 15%.
Poultry: TRQ of 250,000 tons for chicken halves and leg quarters with an in-quota tariff rate of 25% and separate TRQ access for commercially important turkey products. Also access to boneless chicken TRQ.
Whey: TRQ of 15,000 metric tons, with a 10% in-quota duty.
Allowed aggregate measure of support (AMS) reduced from $9 billion for 2012-3 to $4.4 billion by 2018.
15.The Future: Opportunities
Population: 142 million people.
Economic growth, especially in major cities.
Rising disposable income, real wages, food expenditures and falling unemployment.
Growing retail sector.
Strong product demand.
More direct sale to consumers.
Inputs to food processing.
Major beef, poultry, animal genetics, fish, tree nut, and dried/fresh fruit importer.
16.The Future: Opportunities
Investment and cooperation.
U.S. live animal exports at $58 million, mostly breeding cattle.
U.S. hatching egg exports at $13 million, at record levels.
Already U.S. 4th largest export market.
Food processing investments.
Customs Union (CU).
Includes Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan.
1 January 2012: The free movement of goods, services, capital and labor between countries.
All CU legislation will have to be consistent with Russia’s WTO commitments, including the SPS agreement.
17.The Future: Challenges
SPS problems such as vet issues.
Anti-dumping and safeguards.
Customs Union (CU).
Country specific requirements may vary in practice.
Local and other competition.
Strong local/CU/EU producers.
Jackson-Vanik - Need to pass critical legislation to grant Russia Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR).
Corruption, currency, and economic volatility.
Director, Food & Agriculture Sector
900 Seventeenth St, Suite 800
Washington, DC 20006
CRS WTO Report