Slavery divides the nation, North and South enter a long

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  • 1.Slavery divides the nation. North and South enter a long and destructive civil war that ends slavery. African Americans briefly enjoy full civil rights, but new laws discriminate against them. The Union in Peril
  • 2.The Union in Peril SECTION 1 The Divisive Politics of Slavery SECTION 2 The Civil War Begins SECTION 3 The North Takes Charge SECTION 4 Reconstruction and Its Effects
  • 3.Disagreements over slavery heighten regional tensions and leads to the breakup of the Union. The Divisive Politics of Slavery Section-1
  • 4.Section-1 Controversy over Slavery Worsens Southern plantation economy relies on enslaved labor Industrialized North does not depend on slavery South tries to spread slavery in West North’s opposition to slavery intensifies, tries to stop its spread The Divisive Politics of Slavery Differences Between North and South
  • 5.Section-1 Statehood for California California applies for statehood as free state in 1849; angers South Slavery in the Territories The Compromise of 1850 Slave state Texas claims eastern half of New Mexico Territory Southern states threaten secession—withdrawal from Union Compromise of 1850 has provisions for both sides California becomes free state; tougher fugitive slave law enacted Popular sovereignty, or vote, decides slavery issue in NM, Utah
  • 6.Protest, Resistance, and Violence Fugitive Slave Act Slaves denied trial by jury; helpers fined and imprisoned Northerners defy Act, help send slaves to safety in Canada The Underground Railroad Abolitionists develop Underground Railroad—escape routes from South Harriet Tubman is conductor on 19 trips to free African Americans Section-1 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe increases protests Continued…
  • 7.Section-1 Protest, Resistance, and Violence {continued} Tension in Kansas and Nebraska Kansas, Nebraska territories north of 3630’ line, closed to slavery 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act allows popular sovereignty on slavery “Bleeding Kansas” Proslavery settlers from Missouri cross border to vote in Kansas Fraudulent victory leads to violent struggle over slavery in Kansas Violence in the Senate Charles Sumner verbally attacks slavery, singles out Andrew Butler Preston S. Brooks, Butler’s nephew, assaults Sumner on Senate floor
  • 8. Slavery Divides Whigs Democrat Franklin Pierce elected president in 1852 Northern, Southern Whigs split over slavery in territories Nativist Know-Nothings also split by region over slavery New Political Parties Emerge The Free-Soilers’ Voice Free-Soilers fear slavery will drive down wages of white workers Section-1 The New Republican Party Republican Party forms in 1854; oppose slavery in territories Democrat James Buchanan elected president (1856); secession averted Continued…
  • 9. The Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott, a slave taken to free territory by owner, claims freedom Supreme Court denies appeal; Scott has no legal rights, not a citizen North angry; South reads ruling as guaranteed extension of slavery Conflicts Lead to Secession Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858 Senate race between Senator Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln Douglas wants popular sovereignty to decide if state is free or slave Lincoln considers slavery immoral; wants constitutional amendment Section-1 Continued…
  • 10. Harper’s Ferry John Brown leads group to arsenal to start slave uprising (1859) Troops put down rebellion; Brown is tried, executed Conflicts Lead to Secession {continued} Lincoln Is Elected President 1860, Lincoln beats 3 candidates, wins no southern electoral votes Section-1 Southern Secession 7 states secede after Lincoln’s victory; form Confederacy in 1861 Former senator Jefferson Davis elected president of Confederacy Continued…
  • 11.Shortly after the nation’s Southern states secede from the Union, war begins between the North and South. The Civil War Begins Section-2
  • 12. Southern States Take Sides 1861, Fort Sumter in Charleston falls; Lincoln calls for volunteers 4 more slave states join Confederacy Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri remain in Union Union and Confederate Forces Clash Strengths and Strategies Northern strengths: more people, factories, food production Southern strengths: cotton, good generals, motivated soldiers Union plan: blockade ports, split South in two, capture Richmond The Civil War Begins Section-2 Continued…
  • 13. Bull Run Bull Run—first battle, near Washington; Confederate victory Thomas J. Jackson called Stonewall Jackson for firm stand in battle Union Armies in the West Ulysses S. Grant pushes south; captures forts, wins at Shiloh David G. Farragut takes New Orleans, the Confederacy’s busiest port Union and Confederate Forces Clash {continued} Section-2 Continued…
  • 14. The War for the Capitals Robert E. Lee takes command of Confederate Army in 1862: — drives General George McClellan from Richmond — loses at Antietam, bloodiest one-day battle McClellan removed from command, lets battered Confederates withdraw Section-2 Union and Confederate Forces Clash {continued}
  • 15. Britain Remains Neutral Britain does not need cotton, does need Northern goods The Politics of War Section-2 Proclaiming Emancipation Emancipation Proclamation empowers army to free Confederate slaves Gives soldiers moral purpose; compromise no longer possible Both Sides Face Political Dissent Lincoln, Davis suspend habeas corpus to suppress disloyalty, dissent
  • 16. War Leads to Social Upheaval Casualties, desertions lead to conscription on both sides Conscription—draft that forces men to enlist; leads to draft riots African Americans Fight for Freedom African Americans are 1% of North’s population, 10% of army Serve in separate regiments, paid less than whites for most of war Life During Wartime Section-2 Continued… Soldiers Suffer on Both Sides Soldiers often sick from camp filth, limited diet, poor medical care Prisons overcrowded, unsanitary; many die of malnutrition, disease
  • 17. Women Work to Improve Conditions Thousands of women serve as nurses for both sides Union nurse Clara Barton later founds American Red Cross The War Affects Regional Economies Confederacy faces food shortage, increased prices, inflation Union army’s need for supplies supports Northern industry North’s standard of living declines Congress enacts income tax (percentage of income) to pay for war Life During Wartime {continued} Section-2
  • 18.After four years of bloody fighting, the Union wears down the Confederacy and wins the war. The North Takes Charge Section-3
  • 19. Southern Victories December 1862, Fredericksburg; May 1863, Chancellorsville The Battle of Gettysburg North wins decisive three-day battle of Gettysburg, July 1863 Total casualties were more than 30%; South demoralized The Tide Turns Section-3 Continued… The North Takes Charge The Gettysburg Address Nov. 1863, Lincoln gives Gettysburg Address at cemetery dedication Speech helps country realize it is a unified nation
  • 20. Grant Wins at Vicksburg May-July 1863, Grant sieges Vicksburg after unsuccessful attacks The Tide Turns {continued} Section-3
  • 21. Confederates Seek Peace Confederacy no longer able to attack; works toward armistice Southern newspapers, legislators, public call for peace Total War Lincoln appoints Grant commander of all Union Armies (1864) Grant appoints William Tecumseh Sherman as Western commander Grant, Sherman wage total war to destroy South’s will to fight Grant’s strategy to decimate Lee’s army while Sherman raids Georgia The Confederacy Wears Down Section-3 Continued…
  • 22. Sherman’s March Spring 1864, Sherman creates a path of destruction through Georgia The Surrender at Appomatox April 1865, Grant, Lee sign surrender at Appomatox Court House Within a month, all remaining Confederate resistance collapses The Confederacy Wears Down {continued} Section-3 The Election of 1864 Lincoln’s unexpected reelection helped by Sherman’s victories
  • 23.Section-3 Human Cost of the War Approximately 360,000 Union and 260,000 Confederate soldiers die A Revolution in Warfare Developments in military technology make fighting more deadly Ironclad ships change naval warfare The War Changes the Nation Political and Economic Changes Civil War increases power, authority of federal government Southern economy shattered: industry, farmlands destroyed
  • 24. The Thirteenth Amendment Thirteenth Amendment bans slavery in all states The War Changes Lives Section-3 Lincoln Is Assassinated April 14, 1865, Lincoln is shot at Ford’s Theater Assassin John Wilkes Booth escapes, trapped by Union cavalry, shot 7 million people pay respects to Lincoln’s funeral train
  • 25.After the Civil War, the nation embarks on a period known as Reconstruction, during which attempts are made to readmit the South to the Union. Reconstruction and Its Effects Section-4
  • 26. Building a New South Freedmen’s Bureau provides social services, medical care, education Reconstruction—U.S. rebuilds, readmits South into Union (1865–1877) The Politics of Reconstruction Section-4 Continued… Reconstruction and Its Effects Lincoln’s Plan State readmitted if 10% of 1860 voters swear allegiance to Union Radical Republicans consider plan too lenient: — want to destroy political power of former slaveholders — want full citizenship and suffrage for African Americans
  • 27. Johnson’s Plan for Reconstruction Andrew Johnson, Lincoln’s successor, forms own plan Excludes Confederate leaders, wealthy landowners Congress rejects new Southern governments, congressmen The Politics of Reconstruction {continued} Section-4 Congressional Reconstruction Congress passes Civil Rights Act, Freedmen’s Bureau Act (1866) Fourteenth Amendment grants full citizenship to African Americans Reconstruction Act of 1867 divides Confederacy into districts Continued…
  • 28. Johnson Impeached House impeaches for blocking Reconstruction; Senate does not convict Section-4 U. S. Grant Elected Grant elected president in 1868; wins 9 of 10 African-American votes Fifteenth Amendment protects voting rights of African Americans The Politics of Reconstruction {continued}
  • 29. Conditions in the Postwar South By 1870, all former Confederate states have rejoined Union Republican governments begin public works programs, social services Reconstructing Society Section-4 Politics in the Postwar South Scalawags—farmers who joined Republicans, want to improve position Carpetbaggers—Northern Republicans, moved to the South after the war Many Southern whites reject higher status, equal rights for blacks Continued…
  • 30. Former Slaves Improve Their Lives Freedmen found own churches; ministers become community leaders Thousands move to reunite with family, find jobs Section-4 African Americans in Reconstruction Few black officeholders; Hiram Revels is first black senator Reconstructing Society {continued} Sharecropping and Tenant Farming Sharecropping—to farm land owned by another, keep only part of crops Tenant farmers rent land from owner
  • 31. Britain and France The Collapse of Reconstruction Ku Klux Klan—southern vigilante group, wants to: — destroy Republicans, aid planter class, repress African Americans — to achieve goals, KKK kills thousand of men, women, children Enforcement Acts of 1870, 1871 uphold federal power in South In 1872, Amnesty Act passes, Freedmen’s Bureau expires The Collapse of Reconstruction Section-4 Support for Reconstruction Fades Republicans splinter; panic of 1873 distracts North’s attention Supreme Court rules against Radical Republican changes Continued…
  • 32. Democrats “Redeem” the South Democrats regain control as 1876 election deal ends Reconstruction Section-4 The Collapse of Reconstruction {continued}
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