Ch2 - Animal Ecology, Word of the Day - Sapient, The Hierarchy of Ecology

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  • 1.Animal Ecology Word of the Day - Sapient
  • 2.The Hierarchy of Ecology Organisms/Species Communities Populations Physical Environment Ecosystem Biosphere Biomes
  • 3.Ecological Niche vs Habitat Fundamental Niche Realized Niche Moisture Temperature Fundamental Niche Realized Niche
  • 4.Population Ecology Population vs Deme Population Characteristics Differ among demes Age structure Sex ratio Growth rate Influenced by Life History Characteristics
  • 5.Life History Characteristics Age of first reproduction Number of offspring per litter Number of litters per lifetime Mode of reproduction Survivorship Other Characteristics
  • 6.Type I (humans) Type II (hydra,songbirds) Type III (oysters) birth max. life span % survival Survivorship Curves
  • 7.Population Growth death rate (d) growth rate (r) birth rate (b) r = b - d  Intrinsic rate of increase
  • 8.Exponential Growth Arithmetic Growth Exponential Growth
  • 9.Exponential Growth
  • 10.Carrying Capacity time # r = 0.14 r = 0.12 r = 0.10 K
  • 11.Carrying Capacity time # r1 = 0.14 r2 = 0.12 r3 = 0.10 K1 K3 K2
  • 12.Logistic Growth time # r = 0.10 K3 r = 0.14 K1 r = 0.12 K2
  • 13.Extrinsic Limits to Growth Density Dependent Factors 1. Competition Intraspecific Interspecific Predation Parasitism 4. Disease
  • 14.Density Independent Factors Abiotic factors Unpredictable, catastrophic events Extrinsic Limits to Growth
  • 15.Community Ecology Community = association of different populations of organisms Resource = anything in the ecosystem that a particular species requires Species Diversity = the number of species that share a habitat
  • 16.Species Interactions Symbiosis Mutualism Obligate mutualism Facultative mutualism
  • 17.Species Interactions Symbiosis Commensalism
  • 18.Species Interactions Symbiosis Parasitism Ectoparasites Endoparasites
  • 19.Species Interactions Symbiosis Predation & Herbivory
  • 20.Species Interactions Competition Intraspecific Competition Interspecific Competition  LIMITING RESOURCES  Asymmetric Competition
  • 21.Species Interactions Species 1 Temperature Low High Low High Moisture Species 2 Overlap
  • 22.Resource Partitioning
  • 23.Resource Partitioning Character Displacement
  • 24.Defense against herbivores Chemical Defenses Predation
  • 25.Defense against herbivores Physical Defenses Predation
  • 26.Defense against carnivores Warning Coloration Predation Aposematic Coloration
  • 27.Defense against carnivores Camouflage Predation
  • 28.Defense against carnivores Startle Predation
  • 29.Defense against carnivores Mimicry Predation Müllerian Mimicry Batesian Mimicry
  • 30.Keystone Species Indirect Interactions
  • 31.Energy Flow in Ecosystems Imported organic matter exported organic matter Herbivores Carnivores Detritivores Autotrophs (producers) Heterotrophs (consumers) Net primary productivity Nutrient cycle Nutrient cycle From global cycles To global cycles respiration respiration heat heat Energy source
  • 32.Energy Flow in Ecosystems
  • 33.Trophic Pyramids