1.TEXAS CRIMINAL JUSTICE INTEGRITY UNITAND TEXAS FORENSIC SCIENCE COMMISSIONJOINT CONFERENCE ONFORENSIC SCIENCEJUNE 4-5, 2012AUSTIN, TEXAS
UPDATE ON LEGAL STANDARDS
FOR FORENSIC EVIDENCE
Paper and Presentation by
Gary A. Udashen
Sorrels, Udashen & Anton
President, Innocence Project of Texas
2311 Cedar Springs Road, Suite 250
Dallas, Texas 75201
2.T. R. Evid. 702: If scientific, technical, or other specialized knowledge will assist the trier of fact to understand the evidence or to determine a fact in issue, a witness qualified as an expert by knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education may testify thereto in the form of an opinion or otherwise.
3.Kelly v. State, 824 S.W.2d 568 (Tex. Crim. App. 1992) 1. The underlying scientific theory must be valid;2. The technique applying the theory must be valid; and3. The technique must have been properly applied on the occasion in question.
4.Kelly factors guide the trial court in determining reliability of expert testimony
1. The extent to which the underlying scientific theory and technique are accepted as valid by the relevant scientific community;
2. The qualifications of the expert(s) testifying;
3. The existence of literature supporting or rejecting the underlying scientific theory and technique;
4. The potential rate of error of the technique;
5. The availability of other experts to test and evaluate the technique.
5.Expert Testimony Based on Soft Science Nenno v. State, 970 S.W.2d 549, 561 (Tex. Crim. App. 1998)
1. whether the field of expertise is a legitimate one;
2. whether the subject matter of the expert’s testimony is within the scope of that field; and
3. whether the expert’s testimony properly relies upon and/or utilizes the principles involved in the field.
6.Expert Testimony on Reliability of Eyewitness Identification Procedures Tillman v. State, 354 S.W.3d 425 (Tex. Crim. App. 2011)
The court held that psychology is a legitimate field of study and the reliability of eyewitness identification is a legitimate subject within the area of psychology.
7.Perry v. New Hampshire, 132 S.Ct. 716 (2011)
Due Process Clause does not require a preliminary judicial inquiry into the reliability of an eyewitness identification when the identification was not procured under unnecessarily suggestive circumstances arranged by law enforcement.
8.Dog Scent Discrimination Winfrey v. State, 323 S.W.3d 875 (Tex. Crim. App. 2010)
“. . . scent-discrimination lineups, when used alone or as primary evidence, are legally insufficient to support a conviction.”
“. . .dangers inherent in the use of dog tracking evidence can only be alleviated by the presence of corroborating evidence.”
9.Changing Scientific Evidence Ex parte Robbins, 360 S.W.3d 446 (Tex. Crim. App. 2011, cert. denied May 14, 2012)
Question: How Should Courts Respond to Changes in Science Underlying Convictions
10.Robbins Majority Opinion (5-4 Vote)
Majority concluded that because Robbins “failed to prove that the new evidence unquestionably establishes his innocence,” he was not entitled to relief on his claim of actual innocence
Notwithstanding agreement, among experts that Dr. Moore’s findings and testimony were incorrect, the majority refused relief because none of the experts affirmatively proved that “Tristen could not have been intentionally asphyxiated.” Thus, the majority concluded Robbins did not “have a due process right to have a jury hear Moore’s re-evaluation.”
12.Judge Cochran Dissenting
Discussed her “extremely serious concern” about the increased “disconnect between the worlds of science and of law” that allows a conviction to remain in force when the scientific basis for that conviction has since been rejected by the scientific community.
Judge Cochran said “[f]inality of judgment is essential in criminal cases, but so is accuracy of the result - an accurate result that will stand the test of time and changes in scientific knowledge.”
Judge Alcala dissented and said that Robbins “is entitled to relief on his application for a writ of habeas corpus on the ground that he was denied due process of law by the State’s use of false testimony to obtain his conviction.”
14.Ex Parte Henderson, 246 S.W.3d 690 (Tex. Crim. App. 2007)
Child dies of head injury. Henderson says she dropped child. Dr. Roberto Bayardo, the medical examiner, testified that it was impossible for Brandon’s extensive brain injuries to have occurred in the way Henderson stated. In his opinion, Brandon’s injuries had to have resulted from a blow intentionally struck by Henderson.
Henderson submits affidavits and reports that recent advances in the area of biomechanics and physics suggest that it is possible that Brandon’s head injuries could have been caused by an accidental short-distance fall. Additionally, Dr. Bayardo submitted an affidavit which recanted his trial testimony.
The Court of Criminal Appeals majority held that Dr. Bayardo’s re-evaluation of his 1995 opinion is a material exculpatory fact and ordered the trial court to further develop the evidence.
16.Henderson Concurring Opinion by Judge Price
“Under these circumstances, it is at least arguable that the evidence is not even legally sufficient to sustain a conviction; that is, a rational jury could not convict the applicant of capital murder. In any event, it is evident that the applicant has presented a plausible claim that no reasonable juror would have found her guilty of a capital homicide - at least not to a level of confidence beyond a reasonable doubt.”
17.Does the Change in the Science Establish a Ground for Relief
The dissenting Judges in Henderson argued that the new scientific evidence did not establish any recognized claim for relief under Chapter 11 of the Code of Criminal Procedure.
18.Ex Parte Spencer, 337 S.W.3d 869 (Tex. Crim. App. 2011)
“We will consider advances in science and technology when determining whether evidence is newly discovered or newly available, but only if the evidence being tested is the same as it was at the time of the offense. Thus, the science or the method of testing can be new, but the evidence must be able to be tested in the same state as it was at the time of the offense.”
19.Grooming of Children For Sexual Molestation Morris v. State, 361 S.W.3d 649 (Tex. Crim. App. 2011)
The court held that grooming of children for sexual molestation, as a phenomenon, is a legitimate subject of expert testimony of which a law enforcement officer with a significant amount of experience with child sex abuse cases may be qualified to testify.
20.Polygraph Evidence Leonard v. State, ___ S.W.3d ___, 2012 WL 715981 (Tex. Crim. App. 2012), rehearing granted.
Court held that the fact that the defendant failed five polygraph examinations was admissible in an adjudication and revocation of community supervision hearing.
Dissent argued: “We should not permit or condone ‘trial by polygraph’ or ‘revocation by polygraph’”
21.Death Penalty/Mental RetardationWestbrook, Escobedo, Matamoros, Butler, Hunter
All cases remanded by Court of Criminal Appeals to trial court to hold hearings concerning testimony from Dr. George Denkowski that these death row inmates were not mentally retarded and thus, eligible for execution.
22.Lab Testing and the Confrontation Clause Melendez-Diaz v. Massachusetts, 129 S.Ct. 2527 (2009)
Court held the admission of the certificates of state laboratory analyst that substance was cocaine violated petitioner’s Sixth Amendment right to confront the witnesses against him.
Bullcoming v. New Mexico, 131 S.Ct. 2705 (2011)
Introduction of blood-alcohol report, through the surrogate testimony of a second analyst, who had not certified the report or performed or observed the testing, violated the Confrontation Clause.
23.Williams v. Illinois, 131 S.Ct. 3090 (2011)
Case pending at the Supreme Court and presents the issue of whether a state rule of evidence allowing an expert witness to testify about the results of DNA testing performed by non-testifying analysts violates the Confrontation Clause when the defendant has no opportunity to confront the actual analysts.